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Geologic units containing clay or mud

Earth material > Unconsolidated material
Clay or mud
A loose, earthy, extremely fine-grained, natural sediment composed primarily of clay-size or colloidal particles and characterized by high plasticity and by a considerable content of clay minerals...
This category is also used for Clay, mud and mud.
Subtopics:
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Alabama
Citronelle Formation (Pleistocene-Pliocene)
Citronelle Formation - moderate-reddish-brown deeply weathered fine to very coarse quartz sand and varicolored typically mottled lenticular beds of clay and clayey gravel. Limonite pebbles and lenses of limonite cemented sand occur locally in weathered exposures. Gravel is composed of chert and quartz pebbles.
Claiborne Group; Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated in part (Eocene)
Gosport Sand - (Claiborne Group), highly fossiliferous, glauconitic, quartz sand and lenses of greenish-gray clay; occurs between MS state line and AL River.
Claiborne Group; Gosport Sand and Lisbon Formation undifferentiated in part (Eocene)
Lisbon Formation undifferentiated in part - (Claiborne Group), greenish-gray calcareous, glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand; marl; carbonaceous sand; carbonaceous silty clay; and coarse glauconitic, fossiliferous, quartz sand.
Claiborne Group; Tallahatta Formation (Eocene)
Tallahatta Formation - (Claiborne group), White to very light-greenish-gray thin-bedded to massive siliceous claystone; interbedded with thin layers of fossiliferous clay, sandy clay, and glauconitic sand and sandstone. White to light-greenish-gray fine to coarse sand and fine gravel occur at the base of the formation in southwest Alabama (Meridian Sand Member).
Claiborne/Jackson Group; Residuum (Eocene-Oligocene)
Residuum - (Claiborne/Jackson Group), White to moderate-reddish-orange locally mottled sandy clay and residual clay with scattered layers of gravelly medium to coarse sand, fossiliferous chert and limestone boulders and limonitic sand masses. Derived from solution and collapse of limestone in the Jackson Group and Oligocene Series and the slumping of Pliocene and Miocene sediments.
Eutaw Formation (Cretaceous)
Eutaw Formation - Light-greenish-gray to yellowish-gray cross-bedded, well-sorted, micaceous, fine to medium quartz sand that is fossiliferous and glauconitic in part and contains beds of greenish-gray micaceous, silty clay and medium-dark-gray carbonaceous clay. Light-gray glauconitic fossiliferous sand, thin beds of sandstone, and massive accumulations of fossil oyster shells occur locally in the upper part of the formation in western AL (Tombigbee Sand Member). In eastern AL thin to thick-bedded accumulations of the fossil oyster Ostrea cretacea Morton occur throughout much of the formation.
Jackson Group undifferentiated (Eocene)
Jackson Group undifferentiated - The units of the Jackson Group are the Yazoo Clay and Crystal River and Moodys Branch Formations. Descriptions of the members of the Yazoo Clay follow in decending order. Shubuta Member - in western Alabama consists of light-greenish-gray to white plastic fossiliferous, calcareous clay containing irregular calcareous nodules. From the Tombigbee River eastward the Shubuta becomes more calcareous and grades into massive clayey glauconitic limestone. Eastward from the Alabama River , equivalent beds grade into the Crystal River Formation. Pachuta Marl Member - light-greenish-grey glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand and sandy limestone traceable from western Alabama eastward to Covington County where it grades into the Crystal River Formation. Cocoa Sand Member - yellowish-gray firm calcareous, fossiliferous fine to medium sand or sandy limestone or greenish-grey micaceous, calcareous, very clayey sand. Calcareous and clayey sand equivalent to the Cocoa is traceable from western Alabama to the Conecuh River area. North Twistwood Creek Clay Member - greenish-gray plastic calcareous, sparsely fossiliferous, blocky massive clay; grades into Crystal River formation in southeast AL. Crystal River Formation - white to yellowish-grey medium-grained to coquinoid limestone that is soft and chalky to compact and brittle; principally in southeastern AL but interfingers westward with members of the Yazoo Clay. Moodys Branch Formation - greenish-gray to pale-yellowish-orange glauconitic, calcareous, fossiliferous sand and sandy limestone; underlies the Yazoo Clay and the Crystal River Formation.
Midway Group; Clayton Formation (Paleocene)
Clayton Formation - (Midway Group), White to yellowsih-gray argillaceous limestone occurs in the upper part (McBryde Limestone Member): the lower part is medium-gray fossiliferous calcareous silt, glauconitic sand and thin beds of sandy limestone and calcareous sandstone (Pine Barren Member). At the base of the formation in southeast AL is a gravelly medium to coarse sand containing clay pebbles. The formation thins west of Wilcox County and westward from Thomaston in eastern Marengo County is mapped with the Porters Creek Formation. The formation is generally deeply weathered and fresh exposures are rare. In western areas exposures consist of weathered white to yellowish-gray argillaceous, fossiliferous sandy limestone, ferruginous sand, and fossiliferous sandstone. In eastern areas exposures consist of residual accumulations of chert boulders, moderate-reddish-orange sand, and clay containing masses and thin layers of iron minerals (limonite-goethite).
Midway Group; Naheola Formation (Paleocene)
Naheola Formation - (Midway Group), The Naheola Formation is restricted to western AL and pinches out in western Butler County. Descriptions of the members of the formation follow in descending order. Coal Bluff Marl Member - glauconitic sand, thin-bedded silty clay, and sandy fossiliferous marl; Oak Hill Member - laminated silt, clay, and fine sand; contains a prominent bed of lignite near the top. The Coal Bluff Marl Member in Sumter County and in parts of Marengo County is mostly cross-bedded fine to coarse sand that is indistinguishable from the overlying lower beds of the Nanafalia Formation. Therefore, in these areas, the contact between the two is mapped at the top of the Oak Hill Member of the Naheola.
Midway Group; Porters Creek Formation (Paleocene)
Porters Creek Formation - (Midway Group), dark-gray massive plastic clay in western AL with a thin bed of glauconitic shell marl at the top (Mathews Landing Marl Member). Becomes calcareous eastward grading into light-greenish-gray calcareous, micaceous, clayey fine to medium sand, medium-gray sandy, calcareous clay and white to light-gray thin bedded partly clayey, fossiliferous limestone. East of Crenshaw County, owing to lithologic similarity, beds correlative with the Porters Creek are included in the Clayton Formation.
Miocene Series undifferentiated (Miocene)
Miocene Series undifferentiated - Moderate-yellowish-orange thin-bedded to massive fine to coarse sand, gravelly sand, thin-bedded to massive clay and sandy clay. Clays are plastic in part. Limonite pellets occur in places along clay-sand contacts. Gravel is composed of quartz and chert granules and pebbles. Locally the upper part of the unit is Pliocene in age.
Oligocene Series undifferentiated (Oligocene)
Oligocene Series undifferentiated - Descriptions of the units of the Oligocene Series follow in descending order. Paynes Hammock Sand - locally fossiliferous, calcareous, argillaceous medium to coarse sand; pale-blue-green clay; and thin-bedded sandy limestone; exposed at Paynes Hammock and at St. Stephens. Chickasawhay Limestone - white to yellowish-gray fossiliferous, glauconitic limestone and soft marl. Byram Formation includes three members in descending order: Bucatunna Clay Member - dark, bentonitic, carbonaceous, sparsely fossiliferous clay and greyish-yellow sand; unnamed marl member - light-grey to yellowish-grey sandy, glauconitic , fossiliferous marl; Glendon Limestone Member - irregularly indurated coquinoid and crystalline limestone, weathering to indurated rock containing large tubular cavities, locally known as 'horsebone'. Marianna Limestone - white to yellowish-grey soft, porous, very fossiliferous limestone. Forest Hill sand - dark-greenish-grey carbonaceous clay with lenses of glauconitic fossiliferous sand; extends eastward from MS into Choctaw, Clarke and Washington Counties. Red Bluff Clay - greenish-gray calcareous clay locally containing selenite crystals, yellowish-grey glauconitic, fossiliferous limestone; and light-gray silty clay with interbeds of sand (Forest Hill equivalent); from Tombigbee River eastward grades into glauconitic fossiliferous limestone equivalent to the Bumpnose Limestone. Bumpnose Limestone - very light-gray to yellowish-gray chalky, subcoquinoid, glauconitic, argillaceous, fossiliferous limestone; intertongues with Red Bluff Clay in vicinity of the Alabama River and is readily differentiated eastward from the Sepulga River.
Parkwood and Pennington Formations (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian)
Parkwood and Pennington Formations undifferentiated - Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone, locally contains lithic conglomerate, dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal.
Parkwood and Pennington Formations undifferentiated (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian)
Parkwood and Pennington Formations undifferentiated - Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone, locally contains lithic conglomerate, dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal.
Parkwood Formation (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian)
Parkwood Formation - Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone; locally contains dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal.
Parkwood Formation (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian)
Parkwood Formation - Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone; locally contains dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal.
Parkwood Formation and Floyd Shale undifferentiated (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian)
Parkwood Formation and Floyd Shale undifferentiated - Parkwood Formation -- Interbedded medium to dark-gray shale and light to medium-gray sandstone; locally contains dusky-red and grayish-green mudstone, argillaceous limestone, and clayey coal. Floyd Shale -- Dark-gray shale, sideritic in part; thin beds of sandstone, limestone and chert are locally present; beds of partly bioclastic, partly argillaceous limestone are abundant in parts of Calhoun and Cherokee Counties.
Selma Group; Blufftown Formation (Cretaceous)
Blufftown Formation - (Selma Group), The Blufftown extends from the Chattahoochee River Valley westward into central Russell County where it is divided into two westward-extending tongues by an eastward-extending tongue of the Mooreville Chalk. In the Chattahoochee River Valley the Blufftown is mainly glauconitic calcareous fine sand, micaceous clay and marl, fossiliferous clay, gray calcareous fossiliferous sandstone, and carbonaceous clay and silt. To the west the lower tongue of the Blufftown is gravelly sand, glauconitic sand, calcareous clay, and sandy clay and merges with the lower part of the Mooreville Chalk in southwestern Macon County. The upper tongue is mainly calcareous sandy clay and micaceous silty fine sand with thin layers of limestone and sandstone. The upper tongue merges with the Mooreville Chalk and the lower part of the Demopolis Chalk in western Bullock County.
Selma Group; Cusseta Sand Member of the Ripley Formation (Cretaceous)
Cusseta Sand Member of the Ripley Formation - (Selma Group), Cross-bedded, medium to coarse sand; glauconitic, fossiliferous fine sand; and dark-gray fossiliferous, micaceous, carbonaceous clay. The member occurs at the base of the Ripley Formation and extends from Georgia westward into Montgomery County where it merges with the Demopolis Chalk.
Selma Group; Demopolis Chalk (Cretaceous)
Demopolis Chalk - (Selma Group), Light-gray to medium-light-gray compact, brittle chalk overlain by abundantly fossiliferous chalky marl, very clayey chalk, and calcareous clay (Bluffport Marl Member). In south-central Montgomery County the Demopolis is split into two eastward extending tongues by a westward-extending tongue of the Cusseta Sand Member of the Ripley Formation. The lower tongue is pale-olive to yellowish-gray silty to finely sand, micaceous, fossiliferous chalk that eastward becomes more sandy and merges with the Cusseta in central Bullock County. The upper tongue is yellowish-gray clayey, very finely sandy, micaceous chalk that merges with the Ripley in southeastern Montgomery County.
Selma Group; Mooreville Chalk (Cretaceous)
Mooreville Chalk - (Selma Group), Yellowish-gray to olive-gray compact fossiliferous clayey chalk and chalky marl. The unconformable contact at the base is characterized by a bed of glauconitic, chalky sand containing phosphate pellets and molds of fossils. The Arcola Limestone Member at the top consists of two to four beds of light-gray brittle, dense, fossiliferous limestone separated by beds of light-gray to pale-olive calcareous clay.
Selma Group; Prairie Bluff Chalk (Upper Cretaceous)
Prairie Bluff Chalk - (Selma Group), Very light-gray to light-bluish-gray firm sandy, fossiliferous brittle chalk and grayish-black silty sandy calcareous glauconitic, fossiliferous clay; semi-indurated beds of sandy, clayey limestone are present in some exposures. Abscent locally in parts of Marengo, Dallas and Wilcox Counties where overlapped by the Clayton Formation or eroded. The Prairie Bluff thins eastward from southwestern Lowndes County to northern Pike County where it interfingers with the Providence Sand.
Selma Group; Providence Sand (Cretaceous)
Providence Sand - (Selma Group), Upper part consists of cross-bedded fine to coarse sand and white, dark-gray and pale-red-purple mottled clay containing lignite, sand, and kaolin; lower part consists of dark-gray laminated to thin-bedded silty clay and abundantly micaceous, carbonaceous, fossiliferous very fine to fine sand. The Providence Sand extends eastward from southeastern Lowndes County into Georgia.
Selma Group; Ripley Formation (Cretaceous)
Ripley Formation - (Selma Group), Light-gray to pale-olive massive, micaceous, glauconitic, fossiliferous fine sand; sandy calcareous clay; and thin indurated beds of fossiliferous sandstone.
Tuscaloosa Group; Coker Formation (Cretaceous)
Coker Formation - (Tuscaloosa Group), Light-colored micaceous very fine to medium sand, cross-bedded sand, varicolored micaceous clay, and a few thin gravel beds containing quartz and chert pebbles. Beds of thinly laminated finely glauconitic very fine to fine sand, silt and dark-gray carbonaceous clay (Eoline Member) occur locally in the lower part in western AL. Locally quartz and chert gravels at the base of the formation range in size from very fine pebbles to large cobbles. In southeastern Elmore County the formation includes marine sediments consisting of glauconitic, fossiliferous, quartzose fine to medium sand and medium-gray carbonaceous silty clay. Not mapped east of the Tallapoosa River.
Tuscaloosa Group; Gordo Formation (Cretaceous)
Gordo Formation - (Tuscaloosa Group), Massive beds of cross-bedded sand, gravelly sand, and lenticular beds of locally carbonaceous partly mottled moderate-red and pale-red-purple clay; lower part is predominantly a gravelly sand consisting chiefly of chert and quartz pebbles. Not mapped east of the Tallapooza River.
Tuscaloosa Group undifferentiated (Cretaceous)
Tuscaloosa Group undifferentiated - Light-gray to moderate-reddish-orange clayey, gravelly fine to very coarse sand; massive mottled sandy clay; local wood and leaf beds; and thin beds of indurated sandstone. Gravel consists mainly of quartz and quartzite and range in size from very fine pebbles to large cobbles. Mapped eats of the Tallapoosa River.
Wilcox Group; Hatchetigbee Formation (Eocene)
Hatchetigbee Formation - (Wilcox Group), Light to dark-gray laminated carbonaceous clay, silt and very fine to fine sand, and cross-bedded glauconitic sand; one or more thin beds of fossiliferous marly glauconitic sand and sandstone occur in the upper part. Near the base is a prominent bed of glauconitic calcareous sand containing abundant fossils and spheroidal to pillow-shaped sandstone concretions (Bashi Marl Member). In parts of southeast AL the upper beds of the Th were either eroded or not deposited and the overlying Tt formation directly overlies the Bashi Marl Member.
Wilcox Group; Nanafalia Formation (Paleocene)
Nanafalia Formation - (Wilcox Group), Members of the Nanafalia Formation follow in descending order. Grampian Hills Member - medium-gray massive clay, claystone, sandy fossiliferous clay, and fossiliferous fine sand. "Ostrea thirsae beds" - glauconitic, abundantly fossiliferous, quartzose fine to medium sand. Gravel Creek Sand Member - pale-yellowish-orange to moderate-reddish-brown micaceous cross-bedded fine to very coarse sand containing gravel and clay pebbles in some exposures. Gravel Creek Member is absent locally and near the base may contain thin beds of lignite. Updip deposits in northern Henry County and southern Barbour County include beds of alternating medium-gray and white clay, carbonaceous clay, white and grayish-yellow fine to coarse sand and lenses of bauxite and bauxitic clay. Sand beds commonly are cross-bedded, gravelly, and contain numerous clay pebbles. The sequence of beds is often obscured by weathering and the collapse of beds into sinkholes in the underlying Clayton Formation.
Wilcox Group; Tuscahoma Sand (Paleocene)
Tuscahoma Sand - (Wilcox Group), Light-gray to light-olive-gray laminated and thin-bedded carbonaceous silt and clay interbedded with fine sand; thin lignite beds occur locally. Lower part of the formation includes beds of fossiliferous, glauconitic fine quartz sand containing speroidal sandstone concretions, gravel and clay pebbles.
Arkansas
Arkadelphia Marl (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Arkadelphia Marl
Claibourne Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene-Middle)
Claibourne Group
Midway Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Midway Group
Nacatoch Sand (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Nacatoch Sand
Sand and clay (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous)
Sand and clay
Silt and sand (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Early)
Silt and sand - Contains lenses of gravel and clay
Tokio Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Tokio Formation
Wilcox Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene-Early)
Wilcox Group
Woodbine Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Woodbine Formation
Delaware
Bryn Mawr Formation (?)
Bryn Mawr Formation - Red and brown quartz sand with silt, clay and fine gravel.
Columbia Formation (Pleistocene)
Columbia Formation - Yellow and reddish brown quartz sand with gravel and little clay
Potomac Formation (Cretaceous)
Potomac Formation - Variegated silts and clays with beds of quartz sand.
Florida
Alluvium (Pleistocene/Holocene)
Alluvium - Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments - Much of Florida's surface is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics, organics and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments, those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal). Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately (Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped (refer to Healy [1975] for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology. The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These carbonates often contain organics. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are mollusks.
Beach ridge and dune (Pleistocene/Holocene)
Beach ridge and dune - Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments - Much of Florida's surface is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics, organics and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments, those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal). Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately (Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped (refer to Healy [1975] for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology. The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These carbonates often contain organics. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are mollusks.
Citronelle Formation (Pliocene)
Citronelle Formation - The Citronelle Formation is widespread in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The type section for the Citronelle Formation, named by Matson (1916), is near Citronelle, Alabama. The Citronelle Formation grades laterally, through a broad facies transition, into the Miccosukee Formation of the eastern Florida panhandle. Coe (1979) investigated the Citronelle Formation in portions of the western Florida panhandle. The Citronelle Formation is a siliciclastic, deltaic deposit that is lithologically similar to, and time equivalent with, the Cypresshead Formation and, at least in part, the Long Key Formation (Cunningham et al., 1998) of the peninsula. In the western panhandle, some of the sediments mapped as Citronelle Formation may be reworked Citronelle. The lithologies are the same and there are few fossils present to document a possible younger age. The Citronelle Formation consists of gray to orange, often mottled, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, very fine to very coarse, poorly sorted, clean to clayey sands. It contains significant amounts of clay, silt and gravel which may occur as beds and lenses and may vary considerably over short distances. Limonite nodules and limonite-cemented beds are common. Marine fossils are rare but fossil pollen, plant remains and occasional vertebrates are found. Much of the Citronelle Formation is highly permeable. It forms the Sand and Gravel Aquifer of the surficial aquifer system.
Cypresshead Formation (Pliocene)
Cypresshead Formation - The Cypresshead Formation named by Huddlestun (1988), is composed of siliciclastics and occurs only in the peninsula and eastern Georgia. It is at or near the surface from northern Nassau County southward to Highlands County forming the peninsular highlands. It appears that the Cypresshead Formation occurs in the subsurface southward from the outcrop region and similar sediments, the Long Key Formation, underlie the Florida Keys. The Cypresshead Formation is a shallow marine, near shore deposit equivalent to the Citronelle Formation deltaic sediments and the Miccosukee Formation prodeltaic sediments. The Cypresshead Formation consists of reddish brown to reddish orange, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fine to very coarse grained, clean to clayey sands. Cross bedded sands are common within the formation. Discoid quartzite pebbles and mica are often present. Clay beds are scattered and not areally extensive. In general, the Cypresshead Formation in exposure occurs above 100 feet (30 meters) above mean sea level (msl). Original fossil material is not present in the sediments although poorly preserved molds and casts of mollusks and burrow structures are occasionally present. The presence of these fossil "ghosts" and trace fossils documents marine influence on deposition of the Cypresshead sediments. The permeable sands of the Cypresshead Formation form part of the surficial aquifer system.
Hawthorn Group (Miocene)
Hawthorn Group - Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group - The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group occurs at or near the surface near the southern flank of the Ocala Platform from Gilchrist County southward to Pasco County with isolated occurrences in Pinellas County. Correlation of these sediments to the formations of the Hawthorn Group exposed to the east and in the subsurface is uncertain. There is little to no phosphate present in these sediments and fossils are rare. Ages have not been documented but stratigraphic position suggests inclusion in the Hawthorn Group. These sediments may be residual from the weathering and erosion of the Hawthorn Group. The Hawthorn Group sediments on the Brooksville Ridge are deeply weathered and in some outcrops look like Cypresshead Formation siliciclastics. The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments are light olive gray and blue gray in unweathered sections to reddish brown in deeply weathered sections, poorly to moderately consolidated, clayey sands to silty clays and relatively pure clays. These sediments are part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system and provide an effective aquitard for the FAS, except where perforated by karst features. Hard-rock phosphate deposits are associated with the undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments on the eastern flank of the Brooksville Ridge. The hard rock phosphate deposits were formed by the dissolution of phosphate in the Hawthorn sediments and redeposition in karst features.
Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation (Oligocene/Miocene)
Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation - The undifferentiated Arcadia Formation and the Tampa Member crop out on the southwestern flank of the Ocala Platform from Pasco County southward to Sarasota County. Although ages of the outcropping sediments have not been accurately determined, stratigraphic position suggests that the Upper Oligocene parts of the Arcadia Formation and Tampa Member are exposed in this region, particularly from Hillsborough County northward to Pasco County. The Arcadia Formation, named by Scott (1988), is predominantly a carbonate unit with a variable siliciclastic component, including thin beds of siliciclastics. Within the outcrop area, the Arcadia Formation, with the exception of the Tampa Member, is composed of yellowish gray to light olive gray to light brown, micro to finely crystalline, variably sandy, clayey, and phosphatic, fossiliferous limestones and dolostones. Thin beds of sand and clay are common. The sands are yellowish gray, very fine to medium grained, poorly to moderately indurated, clayey, dolomitic and phosphatic. The clays are yellowish gray to light olive gray, poorly to moderately indurated, sandy, silty, phosphatic and dolomitic. Molds and casts of mollusks are common in the dolostones. Silicified carbonates and opalized claystone are found in the Arcadia Formation.
Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation, Tampa Member (Oligocene/Miocene)
Hawthorn Group, Arcadia Formation, Tampa Member - The Tampa Member consists predominantly of limestone with subordinate dolostone, sand and clay (Scott, 1988). The lithology of the Tampa Member is very similar to that of the subsurface limestone part of the Arcadia Formation except that the Tampa Member contains noticeably less phosphate (Scott, 1988). The limestone in the Tampa is white to yellowish gray, fossiliferous and variably sandy and clayey mudstone, wackestone and packstone with minor to no phosphate grains. Sand and clay beds are like those in the undifferentiated Arcadia Formation. Mollusks and corals are common in the Tampa Member as molds and casts, silicified pseudomorphs and original shell material. The Tampa Member and the lower part of the Arcadia Formation form the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in parts of southern Florida (Miller, 1986; Scott, 1991).
Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Formation (Miocene)
Coosawhatchie Formation - The Coosawhatchie Formation is exposed or lies beneath a thin overburden on the eastern flank of the Ocala Platform from southern Columbia County to southern Marion County. Within the outcrop region, the Coosawhatchie Formation varies from a light gray to olive gray, poorly consolidated, variably clayey and phosphatic sand with few fossils, to an olive gray, poorly to moderately consolidated, slightly sandy, silty clay with few to no fossils. Occasionally the sands will contain a dolomitic component and, rarely, the dominant lithology will be dolostone or limestone. Silicified nodules are often present in the Coosawhatchie Formation sediments in the outcrop region. The sediment may contain 20 percent or more phosphate (Scott, 1988). Permeability of the Coosawhatchie sediments is generally low, forming part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
Hawthorn Group, Coosawhatchie Formation, Charlton Member (Miocene/Pliocene)
Hawthorne Group, Coosawhatchie Formation, Charlton Member - The Charlton Member (originally the Charlton formation, Veatch and Stevenson, 1911), crops out only in northern Nassau County near and along the St. Marys River. The Charlton Member in this area consists primarily of light gray to greenish gray, poorly to moderately consolidated, dolomitic to calcareous, silty, sandy, locally fossiliferous clays. Few carbonate beds occur.
Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formation, Bone Valley Member (Miocene/Pliocene)
Hawthorn Group, Peace River Formation, Bone Valley Member - The Bone Valley Member (originally the Bone Valley Formation of Matson and Clapp, 1909), Peace River Formation occurs in a limited area on the southern part of the Ocala Platform in Hillsborough, Polk and Hardee Counties. Throughout its extent, the Bone Valley Member is a clastic unit consisting of sand-sized and larger phosphate grains in a matrix of quartz sand, silt and clay. The lithology is highly variable, ranging from sandy, silty, phosphatic clays and relatively pure clays to clayey, phosphatic sands to sandy, clayey phosphorites (Webb and Crissinger, 1983). In general, consolidation is poor and colors range from white, light brown and yellowish gray to olive gray and blue green. Mollusks are found as reworked, often phosphatized casts. Vertebrate fossils occur in many of the beds within the Bone Valley Member. Shark's teeth are often abundant. Silicified corals and wood are occasionally present as well. The Bone Valley Member is an extremely important, unique phosphate deposit and has provided much of the phosphate production in the United States during the twentieth century. Mining of phosphate in the outcrop area began in 1888 (Cathcart, 1985) and continues to the present.
Hawthorn Group, Statenville Formation (Miocene)
Hawthorn Group, Statenville Formation - The Statenville Formation occurs at or near the surface in a limited area of Hamilton, Columbia and Baker Counties on the northeastern flank of the Ocala Platform. The formation consists of interbedded sands, clays and dolostones with common to very abundant phosphate grains. The sands predominate and are light gray to light olive gray, poorly indurated, phosphatic, fine to coarse grained with scattered gravel and with minor occurrences of fossils. Clays are yellowish gray to olive gray, poorly consolidated, variably sandy and phosphatic, and variably dolomitic. The dolostones, which occur as thin beds, are yellowish gray to light orange, poorly to well indurated, sandy, clayey and phosphatic with scattered mollusk molds and casts. Phosphate occurs in the Statenville Formation in economically important amounts. Silicified fossils and opalized claystones are found in the Statenville Formation. Permeability of these sediments is generally low, forming part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formation (Miocene)
Hawthorn Group, Torreya Formation - Torreya Formation - The Torreya Formation is exposed or near the surface from western Gadsden County eastward to western-most Hamilton County. It is informally subdivided into a lower carbonate unit and an upper siliciclastic unit (Scott, 1988). The majority of Torreya Formation outcrops expose the siliciclastic part of the unit. The carbonate sediments are white to light olive gray, generally poorly indurated, variably sandy and clayey, fossiliferous (molds and casts) limestone (mudstone and wackestone). The limestones often grade into calcareous-cemented sands. Phosphate is present in the carbonate sediments, particularly in the Sopchoppy Member. The siliciclastics vary from white to light olive gray, unconsolidated to poorly indurated, slightly clayey sands with minor phosphate to light gray to bluish gray, poorly consolidated, variably silty clay (Dogtown Member). The siliciclastics are sporadically fossiliferous. The Torreya Formation overlies the FAS and forms part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
Holocene sediments (Holocene)
Holocene sediments - the Holocene sediments in Florida occur near the present coastline at elevations generally less than 5 feet (1.5 meters). The sediments include quartz sands, carbonate sands and muds, and organics.
Jackson Bluff Formation (Pliocene)
Jackson Bluff Formation - The Jackson Bluff Formation, named by Vernon and Puri (1964), occurs at or near the surface in a limited area of the panhandle in Leon, Liberty and Wakulla Counties. It has attracted much attention due to its abundant fossil molluscan fauna (Huddlestun, 1984; Schmidt, 1984). In the outcrop area, the Jackson Bluff Formation is described as a sandy, clayey shell bed (Schmidt, 1984). It is composed of tan to orange-brown to gray green, poorly consolidated, fossiliferous, sandy clays to clayey sands. Fossils present include abundant mollusks, corals, foraminifers and occasional vertebrate remains.
Miccosukee Formation (Pliocene)
Miccosukee Formation - The Miccosukee Formation, named by Hendry and Yon (1967), is a siliciclastic unit with a limited distribution in the eastern panhandle. It occurs in the Tallahassee Hills from central Gadsden County to eastern Madison County, often capping hills. The Miccosukee Formation grades to the west, through a broad facies transition, in central Gadsden County into the Citronelle Formation. The Miccosukee Formation is a prodeltaic deposit. The Miccosukee Formation is composed of grayish orange to grayish red, mottled, poorly to moderately consolidated, interbedded clay, sand and gravel of varying coarseness and admixtures (Hendry and Yon, 1967). The unit is relatively impermeable but is considered a part of the surficial aquifer system (Southeastern Geological Society, 1986).
Residuum on Eocene sediments (Eocene)
Residuum on Eocene sediments - The post-Eocene residuum lying on Eocene sediments in the panhandle consists of reddish brown, sandy clays and clayey sands with inclusions of weathered Eocene limestones. Some of the inclusions are silicified carbonates.
Residuum on Oligocene sediments (Oligocene)
Residuum on Oligocene sediments - The undifferentiated Oligocene residuum, mapped on parts of the Chattahoochee "Anticline", characteristically consists of reddish brown, variably sandy clay with inclusions of variably fossiliferous, silicified limestone (Huddlestun, 1993). The residuum includes Lower and Upper Oligocene weathered sediments (Huddlestun, 1993).
Reworked Cypresshead sediments (Pliocene/Pleistocene)
Reworked Cypresshead sediments - Undifferentiated reworked Cypresshead Formation- This unit is the result of post depositional reworking of the Cypresshead siliciclastics. The sediments are fine to coarse quartz sands with scattered quartz gravel and varying percentages of clay matrix.
Shelly sediments of Plio-Pleistocene age (Pliocene/Pleistocene)
Shelly sediments of Plio-Pleistocene age - Tertiary-Quaternary Fossiliferous Sediments of Southern Florida - Molluskbearing sediments of southern Florida contain some of the most abundant and diverse fossil faunas in the world. The origin of these accumulations of fossil mollusks is imprecisely known (Allmon, 1992). The shell beds have attracted much attention due to the abundance and preservation of the fossils but the biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the units has not been well defined (Scott, 1992). Scott and Wingard (1995) discussed the problems associated with biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene in southern Florida. These "formations" are biostratigraphic units. The "formations" previously recognized within the latest Tertiary-Quaternary section of southern Florida include the latest Pliocene - early Pleistocene Caloosahatchee Formation, the early Pleistocene Bermont formation (informal) and the late Pleistocene Fort Thompson Formation. This section consists of fossiliferous sands and carbonates. The identification of these units is problematic unless the significant molluscan species are recognized. Often exposures are not extensive enough to facilitate the collection of representative faunal samples to properly discern the biostratigraphic identification of the formation. In an attempt to alleviate the inherent problems in the biostratigraphic recognition of lithostratigraphic units, Scott (1992) suggested grouping the latest Pliocene through late Pleistocene Caloosahatchee, Bermont and Fort Thompson Formations in to a single lithostratigraphic entity, the Okeechobee formation (informal). In mapping the shelly sands and carbonates, a generalized grouping as Tertiary-Quaternary shell units (TQsu) was utilized. This is equivalent to the informal Okeechobee formation. The distribution of the Caloosahatchee and Fort Thompson Formation are shown on previous geologic maps by Cooke (1945), Vernon and Puri (1964) and Brooks (1982). The Nashua Formation occurs within the Pliocene - Pleistocene in northern Florida. However, it crops out or is near the surface is an area too small to be shown on a map of this scale. Lithologically these sediments are complex, varying from unconsolidated, variably calcareous and fossiliferous quartz sands to well indurated, sandy, fossiliferous limestones (both marine and freshwater). Clayey sands and sandy clays are present. These sediments form part of the surficial aquifer system
Tamiami Formation (Pliocene)
Tamiami Formation - The Tamiami Formation (Mansfield, 1939) is a poorly defined lithostratigraphic unit containing a wide range of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lithologies and associated faunas (Missimer, 1992). It occurs at or near the land surface in Charlotte, Lee, Hendry, Collier and Monroe Counties in the southern peninsula. A number of named and unnamed members are recognized within the Tamiami Formation. These include: the Buckingham Limestone Member; an unnamed tan clay and sand; an oyster (Hyotissa) facies, a sand facies, the Ochopee Limestone Member, the Bonita Springs Marl Member; an unnamed limestone facies; the Golden Gate Reef Member; and the Pinecrest Sand Member (Missimer, 1992). The individual members of the Tamiami Formation were not separately mapped on the geological map. Lithologies of the Tamiami Formation in the mapped area include: 1) light gray to tan, unconsolidated, fine to coarse grained, fossiliferous sand; 2) light gray to green, poorly consolidated, fossiliferous sandy clay to clayey sand; 3) light gray, poorly consolidated, very fine to medium grained, calcareous, fossiliferous sand; 4) white to light gray, poorly consolidated, sandy, fossiliferous limestone; and 5) white to light gray, moderately to well indurated, sandy, fossiliferous limestone. Phosphate is present in virtually all lithologies as limited quantities of sand- to gravel-sized grains. Fossils present in the Tamiami occur as molds, casts and original material. The fossils present include barnacles, mollusks, corals, echinoids, foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. The Tamiami Formation has highly permeable to impermeable lithologies that form a complex aquifer. Locally, it is part of the surficial aquifer system. In other areas, it forms a part of the intermediate confining unit/aquifer system.
Trail Ridge sands (Pleistocene)
Trail Ridge Sands - Undifferentiated sediments - Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments - Much of Florida's surface is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics, organics and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments, those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal). Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately (Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped (refer to Healy [1975] for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology. The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These carbonates often contain organics. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are mollusks.
Undifferentiated sediments (Pliocene/Pleistocene)
Undifferentiated sediments - Undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary Sediments - These sediments are siliciclastics that are separated from undifferentiated Quaternary sediments solely on the basis of elevation. Based on the suggestion that the Pleistocene sea levels reached a maximum of approximately 100 feet (30 meters) msl (Colquhoun, 1969), these sediments, which occur above 100 feet (30 meters) msl, are predominantly older than Pleistocene but contain some sediments reworked during the Pleistocene. This unit may include fluvial and aeolian deposits. The undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary sediments occur in a band extending from the Georgia-Florida state line in Baker and Columbia Counties southward to Alachua County. These sediments are gray to blue green, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fine to coarse grained, clean to clayey, unfossiliferous sands, sandy clays and clays. Organic debris and disseminated organics are present in these sediments. The undifferentiated Tertiary-Quaternary sediments are part of the surficial aquifer system.
Undifferentiated sediments (Pleistocene/Holocene)
Undifferentiated sediments - Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments - Much of Florida's surface is covered by a varying thickness of undifferentiated sediments consisting of siliciclastics, organics and freshwater carbonates. Where these sediments exceed 20 feet (6.1 meters) thick, they were mapped as discrete units. In an effort to subdivide the undifferentiated sediments, those sediments occurring in flood plains were mapped as alluvial and flood plain deposits (Qal). Sediments showing surficial expression of beach ridges and dunes were mapped separately (Qbd) as were the sediments composing Trail Ridge (Qtr). Terrace sands were not mapped (refer to Healy [1975] for a discussion of the terraces in Florida). The subdivisions of the Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments (Qu) are not lithostratigraphic units but are utilized in order to facilitate a better understanding of the State's geology. The siliciclastics are light gray, tan, brown to black, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, clean to clayey, silty, unfossiliferous, variably organic-bearing sands to blue green to olive green, poorly to moderately consolidated, sandy, silty clays. Gravel is occasionally present in the panhandle. Organics occur as plant debris, roots, disseminated organic matrix and beds of peat. Freshwater carbonates, often referred to as marls in the literature, are scattered over much of the State. In southern Florida, freshwater carbonates are nearly ubiquitous in the Everglades. These sediments are buff colored to tan, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated, fossiliferous carbonate muds. Sand, silt and clay may be present in limited quantities. These carbonates often contain organics. The dominant fossils in the freshwater carbonates are mollusks.
Georgia
Blufftown Formation (Cretaceous)
Blufftown Formation
Charlton Formation and Duplin Marl (Pliocene)
Charlton Formation and Duplin Marl
Claiborne undifferentiated (Eocene)
Claiborne undifferentiated, up-dip equivalent of Lisbon and Tallahatta Formations
Clayton Formation (Paleocene)
Clayton Formation
Cooper Marl (Eocene)
"Cooper Marl" (Ecm). It is now recognized that this unit is not the precise lithologic or biostratigraphic equivalent of type Cooper Marl (Huddlestun, Marsalis & Pickering, 1974).
Cusseta, Blufftown, and Eutaw Formations, undifferentiated (Cretaceous)
Cusseta, Blufftown, and Eutaw Formations, undifferentiated
Cusseta Sand (Cretaceous)
Cusseta Sand
Eocene and Oligocene Residuum, undifferentiated (Eocene-Oligocene)
Eocene and Oligocene Residuum, undifferentiated
Eocene undifferentiated (Eocene)
Eocene undifferentiated, highly weathered sands and sandy clays of lower Tertiary age
Eutaw Formation (Cretaceous)
Eutaw Formation
"Hawthorn Formation" (Miocene)
"Hawthorn Formation", includes Marks Head Formation; Parachucia Beds (Sloan, 1905); and Alum Bluff Formation (Veatch and Stephenson, 1911).
Lower Tertiary-Cretaceous undifferentiated (Lower Tertiary-Cretaceous)
Lower Tertiary-Cretaceous undifferentiated, as mapped includes Middendorf Formation (Sloan, 1904); "Channel Sands" (LaMoreaux, 1946); Tuscaloosa Formation (Cooke, 1939); and "Huber beds" (Buie, informal terminology)
McBean Formation (Eocene)
McBean Formation
Miccosukee Formation (Neogene)
Miccosukee Formation
Nanafalia Formation (Paleocene)
Nanafalia Formation
Nanafalia, Porters Creek, and Clayton Formations, undifferentiated (Paleocene)
Nanafalia, Porters Creek, and Clayton Formations, undifferentiated
Ripley Formation (Cretaceous)
Ripley Formation
Tallahatta Formation (Eocene)
Tallahatta Formation
Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous)
Tuscaloosa Formation
Twiggs Clay (Eocene)
Twiggs Clay
Idaho
Basalt, clay, and gravel; Late Pleistocene basalt flows with interlayered alluvial and lacustrine sediments; Snake River Plain and vicinity (subunits are Qpu1b, Qpu2b, Qpu3b, and Qpu4b) (Late Pleistocene)
Upper Pleistocene Snake Plain lava flows; local stratigraphic position shown by (Qpu4b, Qpu3b, Qpu2b, Qpu1b).
Basalt, clay, and pumice; Late Pleistocene basalt flows, volcaniclastic debris, and ponded sediments of subunit 4b; Snake River Plain; (Late Pleistocene)
Upper Pleistocene Snake Plain basaltic lava flows, unit 4.
Gravel; Early Pleistocene alluvium; western Snake River Plain (Pleistocene)
Lower Pleistocene deposits; outwash, fanglomerate, flood and terrace gravels.
Gravel, sand, and clay; Quaternary-Tertiary colluvium and fanglomerate; western Idaho (Pleistocene and Pliocene)
Pleistocene and Pliocene fanglomerate, colluvium, and poorly sorted gravel deposits.
Gravel, sand, silt, clay; Late Pleistocene glacio-alluvial and lacustrine deposits; Basin and Range, and Snake River Plain (Late Pleistocene)
Upper Pleistocene deposits; outwash, fanglomerate, flood and terrace gravels.
Silt, clay, and diatomite; Middle Pleistocene lacustrine sediments of lava-dammed lakes; western Snake River Plain (Middle Pleistocene)
Middle Pleistocene lava-dammed Snake Plain lake beds of silt, clay and diatomite.
Illinois
Abbott Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Abbott Formation
Bond Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Bond Formation
Carbondale Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Carbondale Formation
Cretaceous (Cretaceous)
Cretaceous
Modesto Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Modesto Formation
Spoon Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Spoon (includes Pa in northeast)
Tertiary - Paleocene, Eocene (Tertiary)
Tertiary - Paleocene, Eocene
Indiana
Carbondale Group (Pennsylvanian)
Carbondale Group - Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. S, Springfield Coal Member
Raccoon Creek Group (Pennsylvanian)
Raccoon Creek Group - Mostly shale and sandstone; also includes thin beds of limestone, clay, and coal. B, Buffaloville Coal Member; LB, Lower Block Coal Member
Kansas
Alluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
unconsolidated sand, silt, clay, and gravel
Alluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
unconsolidated sand, silt, clay, and gravel
Drift (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
sand, silt, clay, and some gravel
Kentucky
Chert and clay, undifferentiated (Lower and Middle Devonian)
Chert and clay, undifferentiated in Jackson Purchase
Porters Creek Clay (Paleocene)
Porters Creek Clay
Louisiana
Alluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray to brownish gray clay and silty clay, reddish brown in the Red River Valley, some sand and gravel locally.
Braided Stream Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray, tan and brown fine to coarse sand; some clay silt and gravel. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
Braided Stream Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray, tan and brown fine to coarse sand; some clay silt and gravel.
Cane River Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
brown silty clay with basal glauconitic, fossiliferous silts which may weather to ironstone locally.
Carnahan Bayou Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
yellow to gray siltstones, sandstones, and clays with thin tuffaceous beds; some lenses of black chert gravel; petrified wood locally.
Castor Creek Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
gray to dark gray calcareous clays which may weather to black soil; lignitic clays and noncalcreous clayey silts
Chenier Plain, Fresh Marsh (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray to brown to black clay and silt of high organic content.
Chenier Plain, Saline Marsh (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray to brown to black clay and silt of moderate organic content.
Cockfield Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
brown lignitic clays, silts and sands; some sideritic glauconite may weather to brown ironstone in lower part.
Cook Mountain Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
greenish gray sideritic clay in upper part may weather to brown ironstone; yellow to brown clays and fossiliferous marl in lower part may weather to black soil. Ironstone concretions near base.
Delta Plain, Fresh Marsh (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray to black clay of very high organic content, some peat.
Delta Plain, Saline Marsh (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray to black clay of very high organic content, some peat.
Deweyville Terrace (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
gray mixed with brown-to-red clay and silty clay; some sand and gravel locally.
Dough Hills Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
gray to yellow silty clays; light gray calcareous clays which may weather to black soil; some siliceous silt and volcanic ash beds.
High Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
tan to orange clay, silt, and sand with a large amount of basal gravels. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
High Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
tan to orange clay, silt, and sand with a large amount of basal gravels.
Intermediate Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray to orange-brown clay, sandy clay, and silt; much sand and gravel locally.
Intermediate Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray to orange-brown clay, sandy clay, and silt; much sand and gravel locally. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
Jackson Group (undifferentiated) (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
light gray to brown liginitic clays with thin interbeds of limonitic sands or lignite; near base,calcareous, glauconitic, and fossiliferous beds may weather to black soil. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
Jackson Group (undifferentiated) (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
light gray to brown liginitic clays with thin interbeds of limonitic sands or lignite; near base,calcareous, glauconitic, and fossiliferous beds may weather to black soil.
Lena Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
gray calcareous clays which may weather to black soil; siltstone, taffaceous clays and some volcanic ash beds
Natural Levees (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
gray and brown silt, silty clay, some very fine sand, reddish brown along the Red River.
Prairie Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray to light brown clay, sandy clay, silt, sand, and some gravels. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
Prairie Terraces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
light gray to light brown clay, sandy clay, silt, sand, and some gravels.
Sparta Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
white to light gray massive sands with interbedded clays; some thin beds of lignite or lignitic sands and shales.
Vicksburg Group (undifferentiated) (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
brown to gray liginitic clays with thin interbeds of lignite or micaceous sands; calcareous shale, petrified wood, and bluish fossilferous clay locally.
Vicksburg Group (undifferentiated) (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
brown to gray liginitic clays with thin interbeds of lignite or micaceous sands; calcareous shale, petrified wood, and bluish fossilferous clay locally. Overlain by 1-9 meters of loess.
Wilcox Group (undifferentiated) (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
gray to brown lignitic sands and silty to sandy lignitic clays, many seams of lignite; some limestone and glauconite.
Williamson Creek Member (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
white to gray silts, siltstones, silty clays, and sand beds; some lenses of black chert gravel.
Massachusetts
Cretaceous sediments (Cretaceous)
Cretaceous sediments - Clay, silt, sand, and gravel, mostly of non-marine and nearshore marine origin, Campanian and older.
Tertiary sediments (Tertiary)
Tertiary sediments - Unconsolidated sand, silt, and clay in discontinuous patches; contains Tertiary fossils; may include Pleistocene sediments (cross section only).
Maryland
Chesapeake Group; Calvert Formation (Miocene)
Chesapeake Group; Calvert Formation - Plum Point Marls Member: Interbedded dark green to dark bluish-gray, fine-grained argillaceous sand and sandy clay; contains prominent shell beds and locally silica-cemented sandstones; and Fairhaven Member: Greenish-blue diatomaceous clay, weathers to pale gray; pale brown to white, fine-grained argillaceous sand; and greenish-blue sandy clay; total thickness 0 to 150 feet.
Chesapeake Group; St. Marys Formation (Miocene)
Chesapeake Group; St. Marys Formation - Greenish-blue to yellowish-gray sandy clay and fine-grained argillaceous sand; thickness 0 to 80 feet.
Lowland Deposits (Quaternary)
Lowland Deposits - Gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Medium- to coarse-grained sand and gravel; cobbles and boulders near base; commonly contains reworked Eocene glauconite; varicolored silts and clays; brown to dark gray lignitic silty clay; contains estuarine to marine fauna in some areas (includes in part Pamlico, Talbot, Wicomico and Sunderland Formations of earlier reports); thickness 0 to 150 feet.
Magothy Formation (Cretaceous)
Magothy Formation - Loose, white, cross-bedded, "sugary", lignitic sands and dark gray, laminated silty clays; white to orange-brown, iron-stained, subrounded quartzose gravels in western Anne Arundel County; absent in outcrop southwest of Patuxent River; thickness 0 to 60 feet.
Pamunkey Group; Nanjemoy Formation (Eocene)
Pamunkey Group; Nanjemoy Formation - Dark green to gray, argillaceous, glauconitic, fine- to medium-grained sand; minor gray to pale brown clay; total thickness 0 to 125 feet; Marlboro Clay member at base: Pink to gray, homogeneous plastic clay with local lenses of very fine-grained white sand; thickness 0 to 30 feet; present west of Chesapeake Bay only; total thickness 0 to 125 feet.
Potomac Group, including Raritan and Patapsco Formations, Arundel Clay, and Patuxent Formation (Cretaceous)
Potomac Group - Interbedded quartzose gravels; protoquartzitic to orthoquartzitic argillaceous sands; and white, dark gray, and multicolored silts and clays; thickness 0 to 800 feet. Includes Raritan and Patapsco Formations - Gray, brown, and red variegated silts and clays; lenticular, cross-bedded, argillaceous, subrounded sands; minor gravels; thickness 0 to 400 feet; Arundel Clay - Dark gray and maroon lignitic clays; abundant siderite concretions; present only in Baltimore-Washington area; thickness 0 to 100 feet; and Patuxent Formation - White or light gray to orange-brown, moderately sorted, cross-bedded, argillaceous, angular sands and subrounded quartz gravels; silts and clays subordinate, predominantly pale gray; thickness 0 to 250 feet.
Quaternary Deposits Undivided (Quaternary)
Quaternary Deposits Undivided - Undifferentiated gray to buff sand and gravel, gray to brown lignitic silt and clay, occasional boulders, and rare shell beds. Surficial deposits occur as intercalated fluvial sands and marsh muds (e.g. in upstream floodplain of the Wicomico and Nanticoke Rivers), well-sorted, stablized dune sands (e.g. eastern Wicomico County), shell-bearing estuarine clays and silts (e.g. lower Dorchester County) and Pocomoke River basin of Worcester County), and beach zone sands (e.g. Fenwick and Assateague Islands). Wisconsin to Holocene in age. Subsurface deposits of pre-Wisconsin age consist of buff to reddish-brown sand and gravel locally incised into Miocene sediments (e.g. Salisbury area), estuarine to marine white to gray sands, and gray to blue, shell-bearing clays (e.g. Worcester County).
Upland Deposits (Eastern Shore) (Quaternary)
Upland Deposits (Eastern Shore) - Gravel, sand, silt, and clay. Mostly cross-bedded, poorly sorted, medium- to coarse-grained white to red sand and gravel; boulders near base; minor pink and yellow silts and clays; (Wicomico Formation of earlier reports); thickness 0 to 90 feet, locally thicker in paleochannels.
Upland Deposits (Western Shore) (Quaternary)
Upland Deposits (Western Shore) - Gravel and sand, commonly orange-brown, locally limonite-cemented; minor silt and red, white, or gray clay; (includes Brandywine, Bryn Mawr, and Sunderland Formations of earlier reports); lower gravel member and upper loam member in Southern Maryland; thickness 0 to 50 feet.
Missouri
CHEROKEE GROUP- Cabaniss Subgroup, Krebs Subgroup (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Middle [Middle Desmonian])
CHEROKEE GROUP - Cabaniss Subgroup - cyclic deposits, shale, sandstone, clay and several workable coal beds. Krebs Subgroup - cyclic deposits, sandstone, siltstone, shale, clay and some workable coal beds
GULFIAN SERIES (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
GULFIAN SERIES - Owl Creek Formation - massive, sandy, micaceous, fossilliferous, glauconitic marine clay, max 100 ft. McNairy Formation - unconsolidated sandstone with clay and gravel lenses, max of 250 ft.
HOLOCENE SERIES (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
HOLOCENE SERIES - Alluvium - clay, silt, sand, and gravel
MARMATON GROUP (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Middle [Middle Desmonian])
MARMATON GROUP - cyclic deposits, shale and limestone with sandstone, clay and several coal beds, some workable
PLEISTOCENE SERIES (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
PLEISTOCENE SERIES - Loess, till, drift, clay, silt, sand and gravel (shown on cross section, not on map)
RIVERTON FORMATION, BURGNER FORMATION (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Middle [Atokan])
RIVERTON FORMATION - shale, clay, coal. BURGNER FORMATION - limestone
TERTIARY SYSTEM (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene Eocene(?) Oligocene(?) Miocene(?) Pliocene-Early(?) Pliocene-Middle(?) Pliocene-Late)
TERTIARY SYSTEM - PLIOCENE SERIES - Mounds Gravel (Lafayette Formation) - ferruginous, chert gravel, max of 60 ft. EOCENE SERIES - Wilcox Group - includes Holly Springs Formation - x - bedded sandstone, clay and gravel, max of 1200 ft.; Ackerman Formation - clay with lens of sand and gravel, max of 100ft. PALEOCENE SERIES - Midway Group - includes Porters Creek Clay - bentonitic clay, max of 200 ft.; Clayton Formation - marl, fossiliferous, calcareous, limonitic, glauconitic sand and clay, max of 20 ft.,
Mississippi
Catahoula formation (Miocene)
Catahoula formation - Irregularly bedded gray sand and sandstone; mottled red and gray, green, and chocolate-colored clay; some quartzite, and some gravel; the Paynes Hammock sand, sandy limestone cross-bedded fine green sand, and thin-bedded sand and clay, is mapped with the underlying Chickasawhay limestone in eastern MS.
Citronelle formation (Pleistocene)
Citronelle formation - Red sand and gravel and white clay; may be of Pliocene age; the formation mapped is equivalent to the Willis sand and does not include the terrace deposits, colluvium, and residuum commonly considered "Citronelle".
Clayton formation (Paleocene)
Clayton formation - (Midway group), Upper part, greenish-gray coarsely glauconitic sandy clay and marl; lower part, crystalline sandy limestone and loose sand, represented south of Houston by a discontinuous bed of indurated calcareous sandstone.
Coastal deposits (Holocene)
Coastal deposits - Loam, sand, gravel and clay.
Cockfield (Eocene)
Cockfield - (Claiborne group), Irregularly bedded, more or less laminated liginitic clay, sand, and lignite; sparingly glauconitic.
Coffee sand (Upper Cretaceous)
Coffee sand - (Selma group), Light-gray cross-bedded to massive glauconitic sand and sandy clay and calcareous sandstone.
Cook Mountain formation (Eocene)
Cook Mountain formation - (Claiborne group), Southeast of Pearl River, marl, limestone, glauconitic sand, and chocolate-colored clay; northwest of Pearl River, predominantly chocolate-colored clay with some glauconitic sand.
Eutaw formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Eutaw formation - More or less cross-bedded and thinly laminated glauconitic sand and clay; basal part includes the McShan formation, greenish-gray, micaceous, locally very glauconitic, very fine-grained sand and thin-bedded light-gray clay, small chert gravels may be present in basal beds, not recognized in northern Tishomingo County.
Forest Hill formation and Red Bluff clay (Oligocene)
Forest Hill formation and Red Bluff clay - Forest Hill sand, cross-bedded fine gray sand, laminated fine sand and clay, and a little lignite; in Wayne and Clarke Counties lower part merges eastward into Red Bluff clay, blue-green glauconitic, gypsiferous, fossiliferous clay and thin limestone beds.
Jackson group (Eocene)
Jackson group - Yazoo clay, green and gray calcareous clay containing some sand and marl; Moodys Branch formation at base, shells embedded in glauconitic clayey quartz sand.
Kosciusko formation (Eocene)
Kosciusko formation - (Claiborne group), irregularly bedded sand, clay, and some quartzite.
Mooreville chalk (Upper Cretaceous)
Mooreville chalk - (Selma group), Marly chalk and calcareous clay.
Naheola formation (Paleocene)
Naheola formation - (Midway group) - Fine to coarse micaceous sand, kaolin, and bauxitic clay.
Pascagoula and Hattiesburg formation (Miocene)
Pascagoula and Hattiesburg formation - Green and bluish-green clay, sandy clay, and sand; gray siltstone and sand; locally fossiliferous.
Porters Creek formation (Paleocene)
Porters Creek formation - (Midway group), Dark-gray clay, north of Clay County contains slightly glauconitic, micaceous sand lenses.
Prairie Bluff chalk and Owl Creek formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Prairie Bluff chalk and Owl Creek formation - (Selma group), Prairie Bluff chalk, compact brittle chalk, sandy chalk, and calcareous clay; at base contains many phosphatic molds of fossils; in Ponotoc and Union Counties merges northward into Owl Creek formation, tough blue glauconitic sandy clay.
Ripley formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Ripley formation - (Selma group), gray to greenish-gray fine glauconitic sand, clay, and sandy limestone; south of Oktibbeha County is very sandy micaceous chalk.
Ripley formation (McNairy sand member) (Upper Cretaceous)
Ripley formation (McNairy sand member) - (Selma group), red and white cross-bedded micaceous sand and white sandy clay.
Tallahatta formation and Neshoba sand (Eocene)
Tallahatta formation and Neshoba sand - (Claiborne group), Southeast of Pearl River predominantly more or less glauconitic claystone and clay with lenses of sand and some sandstone; highly cross-bedded sand at base; northwest of Pearl river predominantly sand, locally glauconitic, containing claystone and clay lenses and abundant clay stringers; Neshoba sand, sparingly glauconitic fairly coarse sand not recognized southeast of Newton County or north of Yalobusha River.
Tuscaloosa formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Tuscaloosa formation - Light and vari-colored irregularly bedded sand, clay, and gravel; gravel is mostly in lower portion.
Vicksburg group and Chickasawhay limestone (Oligocene)
Vicksburg group and Chickasawhay limestone - Chickasawhay limestone, sandy limestone, and sand, present only in eastern MS (mapped with it is the overlying Paynes Hammock sand of Miocene age); Vicksburg group, predominantly limestone and marl, but contains some bentonite and near the top, chocolate-colored clay and some sand.
Wilcox formation (Eocene)
Wilcox formation - Irregularly bedded fine to coarse sand, more or less lignitic clay and lignite; includes bauxite bearing Fearn Springs sand member at base.
Wilcox formation; Nanafalia formation of Alabama (Eocene)
Wilcox formation - Nanafalia formation of Alabama - fossiliferous marl bed which in Alabama occurs near middle of Nanafalia formation of Alabama.
Zilpha formation and Winona formation (Eocene)
Zilpha formation and Winona formation - (Claiborne group), Zilpha clay, chocolate-colored clay containing some glauconitic sand, not recognized north of Yalobusha River; Winona sand, highly glauconitic sand, more or less clayey.
North Carolina
Beaufort Formation, Undivided (Tertiary)
Beaufort Formation, Undivided - Unnamed upper member: sand and silty clay, glauconitic, fossiliferous, and locally calcareous. Jericho Run Member: siliceous mudstone with sandstone lenses, thin bedded; basal phosphatic pebble conglomerate.
Belgrade Formation, Undivided (Tertiary)
Belgrade Formation, Undivided - Pollocksville Member: oyster-shell mounds in tan to orange sand matrix, indurated locally. Haywood Landing Member: fossiliferous clayey sand, gray to brown. Members grade into each other laterally.
Black Creek Formation (Cretaceous)
Black Creek Formation - clay, gray to black, lignitic; contains thin beds and laminae of fine-grained micaceous sand and thick lenses of cross-bedded sand. Glauconitic, fossiliferous clayey sand lenses in upper part.
Cape Fear Formation (Cretaceous)
Cape Fear Formation - sandstone and sandy mudstone, yellowish gray to bluish gray, mottled red to yellowish orange, indurated, graded and laterally continuos bedding, blocky clay, faint cross-bedding, feldspar and mica common.
Middendorf Formation (Cretaceous)
Middendorf Formation - sand, sandstone, and mudstone, gray to pale gray with an orange cast, mottled; clay balls and iron-cemented concretions common, beds laterally discontinuous, cross-bedding common.
Peedee Formation (Cretaceous)
Peedee Formation - sand, clayey sand, and clay, greenish gray to olive black, massive, glauconitic, locally fossiliferous and calcareous. Patches of sandy molluscan-mold limestone in upper part.
Pinehurst Formation (Tertiary)
Pinehurst Formation - sand, medium- to coarse-grained, cross-bedding and rhythmic bands of clayey sand common, unconsolidated.
Surficial Deposits, Undivided (Quaternary)
Surficial Deposits, Undivided - sand, clay, gravel, and peat deposited in marine, fluvial, eolian, and lacustrine environments. Quaternary deposits not shown at altitudes greater than approx. 205 feet above mean sea level (Suffolk Scarp, in part).
Terrace Deposits and Upland Sediment (Tertiary)
Terrace Deposits and Upland Sediment - gravel, clayey sand, and sand, minor iron-oxide cemented sandstone.
Waccamaw Formation (Tertiary)
Waccamaw Formation - fossiliferous sand with silt and clay, bluish-gray to tan, loosely consolidated. Straddles Pleistocene-Pliocene boundary.
Yorktown Formation and Duplin Formation, Undivided (Tertiary)
Yorktown Formation and Duplin Formation, Undivided - Yorktown Formation: fossiliferous clay with varying amounts of fine-grained sand, bluish gray, shell material commonly concentrated in lenses; mainly in area north of Neuse River. Duplin Formation: shelly, medium- to coarse-grained sand, sandy marl, and limestone, bluish gray; mainly in area south of Neuse River.
North Dakota
Bullion Creek Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Yellow-brown silt, sand, clay, sandstone, and lignite; river, lake, and swamp sediment; as thick as 200 meters (600 feet).
Coleharbor Formation- Offshore Sediment- Eroded Lake Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Laminated silt and clay of glacier-dammed lakes; as thick as 60 meters (200 feet). Flat-bedded sediment along valley sides exposed as a result of postdepositional erosion.
Coleharbor Formation- Offshore Sediment- Ice-Walled Lake Sediment or Collapsed Supraglacial-Lake Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Laminated silt and clay of glacier-dammed lakes; as thick as 60 meters (200 feet). Flat-bedded sediment elevated above surrounding area or floded sediment with hummocky topography.
Coleharbor Formation- Offshore Sediment- Proglacial Lake Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Laminated silt and clay of glacier-dammed lakes; as thick as 60 meters (200 feet). Flat-bedded sediment of low-lying plains
Glacial Sediment- Collapsed/Draped Transition Sediments (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Collapsed Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Collapsed Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Collapsed Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Collapsed Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Glacial Sediment Draped Over Pre-existing Topography (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment-Glacial Sediment Draped Over Pre-existing Topography (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Glacial Sediment on Subglacially Molded Surfaces (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Glacial Sediment on Thrust Masses (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- River-Eroded Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Slopwash-Eroded Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Glacial Sediment- Wave-Eroded Glacial Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Unbedded, unsorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and pebbles, and a few cobbles and boulders; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet)
Golden Valley Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene Eocene)
Upper member: Yellow-brown micaceous sandstone, sand, silt, and clay; fluvial sediment; as thick as 60 meters (200 feet). Lower member: White or yellow clay, silt, and sand; a weatering zone developed on underlying unit; as thick as 20 meters (65 feet).
Hell Creek Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Gray sand, silt, clay, and sandstone; river sediment; as thick as 150 meters (500 feet).
Ludlow Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Gray-brown and yellow-brown silt, sand, clay and sandstone, and lignite; river, lake, and swamp sediment; as thick as 100 meters (300 feet).
Oahe Formation- Pond Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Dark, obscurely bedded clay and silt; typically a few meters thick; in modern ephemeral ponds.
Oahe Formation- River Sediment (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
Dark, obscurely bedded clay and silt (overbank sediment); generally overlying cross-bedded sand (channel sediment); as thick as ten meters (30 feet); on flood plains of modern streams.
Sentinel Butte Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Gray-brown silt, sand, clay, sandstone, and lignite; river, lake, and swamp sediment; as thick as 200 meters (600 feet).
Slope Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Gray-brown and yellow-brown silt, sand, clay, sandstone, and lignite; river, lake, and swamp sediment; as thick as 100 meters (300 feet).
White River Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
Brule Formation: Pinkish siltstone, clay, and sand; river and lake sediment; as thick as 50 meters (150 feet). Chadron Formation: Light-colored sand with quartzite and porphyry pebbles, overlain by dark clay; river and lake sediment; as thick as 30 meters (100 feet).
Nebraska
Fox Hills Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Consists of fossiliferous, gray, ferruginous and yellowish fine-grained sandstone, arenaceous clays and a few interbeds of gray to brown sandy shale and coal totaling 172 ft thick at that section. Estimated thickness 500 ft.
White River Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
Clay, some claystone, silt and siltstone. Predominantly greenish gray and volcaniclastic. Other occurrences are greenish gray to white and bentonitic. Local channel sandstone at base. Aprox thickness 195 ft.
New Jersey
Belleplain Member of the Kirkwood Formation (middle Miocene, Serravallian)
Belleplain Member - Clay to silty clay at the base and sand at the top. Clay, massive to laminated, gray-brown, locally contains abundant diatoms and scattered small shell fragments. Sand, fine- to medium-grained, pale-gray to white, somewhat micaceous and woody with scattered shell fragments. Most Belleplain sand is quartz with lesser amounts of feldspar and mica. Pyrite is common in clayey strata. The Belleplain subcrops beneath surficial deposits where the overlying Cohansey Formation was eroded away. Along the Atlantic Ocean, the member is exposed on the southern sheet between Beach Haven Terrace, Ocean County, and Brigantine, Atlantic County, where the unit is overlain by thin to thick deposits of alluvium. The member is as much as 15 m (49 ft) thick. The basal contact with the underlying Wildwood Member is sharp and unconformable with a thin bed of reworked coarse-grained quartz sand at the base. A middle Miocene age for the Belleplain was determined from diatoms. Specifics of the diatom biostratigraphy are discussed in the Description of Subsurface Units. Shells from this unit had a strontium-isotope age estimate of 13.2 Ma (Sugarman and others, 1993).
Cheesequake Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Campanian and upper Santonian)
Cheesequake Formation - Clay and clay-silt, micaceous, thin-bedded to laminated, dark-gray; weathers light tan. Contains abundant wood fragments intercalated with light-colored, fine-grained micaceous quartz sand and is rarely crossbedded. Rock fragments and feldspar are minor sand constituents. Small cylindrical burrows occur in the updip area. Abundant, rounded, pale-gray siderite concretions (about 8 cm (3 in) in diameter) occur in thin discontinuous beds. Sand interfingers rapidly within a short distance with extensively bioturbated, dark-gray, very micaceous, somewhat woody clay-silt. The basal clay-silt has extensive cylindrical burrows filled with fine-grained, light- to medium-green botryoidal glauconite. The basal contact with the underlying Magothy Formation is sharp. Reworked siderite concretions and some glauconite and coarse-grained quartz sand are found along the contact within the Cheesequake. Unit exposed only in the South Amboy and Keyport quadrangles. The unit is about 14 m (46 ft) thick. The age of the Cheesequake was determined from pollen (Litwin and others, 1993), which indicates the unit is between the Merchantville Formation microflora (CA2 Zone of Wolfe, 1976, lower Campanian) and the uppermost Magothy microflora (?Pseudoplicapollis cunceata-Semioculopollis verrucosa Zone of Christopher, 1979, upper Santonian). It is probable that the Cheesequake Formation contains the Santonian-Campanian boundary. This unit was not recognized by Petters (1976) who concluded that the Magothy and Merchantville interfingered in the subsurface and the Merchantville was, in part, Santonian.
Cheesequake Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Campanian and upper Santonian)
Cheesequake Formation - New unit named herein for outcrops in gullies at Cheesequake in the eastern part of the South Amboy 7.5-min quadrangle. Basal sand, quartz and glauconite, fine-grained, clayey, thin-bedded, dark-greenish-gray; middle part, quartz sand, very fine grained, thick-bedded, dark-gray, micaceous, and clayey silt with scattered and varying amounts of glauconite sand; upper part, quartz sand, fine-grained, clayey, thinbedded. Sand, excluding glauconite sand beds, is primarily quartz with small amounts of feldspar and mica. In most areas, particularly in the updip sections, the upper sand has been eroded away. This formation underlies most of the map area and is as much as 43 m (141 ft) thick. Nannofossils obtained from the Toms River and Freehold drillholes indicate that the Cheesequake Formation is latest Santonian at the base to earliest Campanian at the top (P.C. Valentine, oral commun., 1989) or equivalent to Zones CC16 to CC17. Thus the Santonian-Campanian boundary lies within the Cheesequake Formation. Studies of pollen (Litwin and others, 1993) in outcrop indicate a pollen assemblage containing elements of the ?Pseudoplicapollis cuneata-Semioculopollis verrucosa Zone (Vc of Christopher, 1982) and the CA2 Zone of Wolfe (1976).
Cohansey Formation (Middle Miocene, Serravallian)
Cohansey Formation - Sand, white to yellow with local gravel and clay. Locally stained red or orange brown by iron oxides and (or) cemented into large blocks of ironstone. Unweathered clay is typically dark gray, but commonly weathers white where interbedded with thin beds of ironstone. Unit is a complex of interfingering marine and nonmarine facies. Sand is typically medium grained and moderately sorted although it ranges from fine to very coarse grained and from poorly to well sorted. Sand consists of quartz and siliceous rock fragments. Some beds are locally micaceous, and in the Lakehurst area, Ocean County, some beds have high concentrations of "black" sand (pseudorutile) that was once extensively mined. In general, the sand is crossbedded, although the style of crossbedding varies significantly with the paleoenvironment. Trough crossbedding predominates, especially in the nonmarine channel fill deposits, and the scale of the crossbeds varies from small to large. In some areas, planar bedding is well developed in sections that have abundant marine burrows (mostly the clay-lined trace fossil Ophiomorpha nodosa). Such marine-influenced beds (largely foreshore deposits) occur on the central sheet west of Asbury Park, near Adelphia, Monmouth County, north of the Lakehurst Naval Air Station, Ocean County, and at Juliustown, Burlington County (Owens and Sohl, 1969), and on the southern sheet as far north as Salem, Salem County. Gravel beds occur locally, especially in updip areas such as near New Egypt, Ocean County, in the Atlantic Highlands and in the highlands west of Barnegat, Ocean County, in the southern part of the central sheet and in mixed marine and nonmarine facies in the northeastern part of the southern sheet where gravel occurs in well-defined channels. Most of the gravel is 1.3 to 2.5 cm (0.5-1.0 in) in diameter, but pieces as long as 10 cm (4 in) are present. The gravel is composed of quartz with small amounts of black chert and quartzite. Clay commonly occurs as discrete, thin, discontinuous beds, is dark gray where unweathered, white or red where weathered. Lesser, thin laminated clay strata also are present. Locally, as near Lakehurst, thick, dark-gray, very lignitic clay was uncovered during the mining of ilmenite and is informally called the Legler lignite (Rachele, 1976). An extensive, well-preserved leaf flora was collected from a thick clay lens in a pit near Millville, Cumberland County. The leaf flora was dominated by Alangium sp., a tree no longer growing in eastern North America (J.A. Wolfe, written commun., 1992). Maximum thickness in the map area is about 60 m (197 ft); however, thickness is difficult to determine because of the irregular basal contact and extensive post-depositional erosion. There is as much as 18 m (59 ft) of relief along the basal contact. The basal contact is sharp, undulatory, and directly overlain by a thin gravel bed. The Cohansey Formation unconformably overlies the Kirkwood Formation and is found in channels cut down into the Kirkwood. Where the Kirkwood consists of sandy, light-colored sediments, the basal contact of the Cohansey is drawn below crossbedded sediments. Where the Kirkwood consists of dark-colored silty beds, the basal contact is drawn between light-colored Cohansey sediments and the underlying dark-colored sediments. The Cohansey was markedly thinned because of erosion prior to deposition of overlying units in the western and southern parts of the southern sheet (Owens and Minard, 1975). The unit has been extensively eroded and stripped from large areas of the New Jersey Coastal Plain, particularly in the central sheet where outliers are common. In spite of its widespread nature, the Cohansey is poorly exposed because of its loose sandy composition, which causes it to erode easily (Newell and others, in press). Because of this same sandy nature, the Cohansey has been widely mined for sand, and manmade exposures are common in many areas. The age of the Cohansey is controversial because no calcareous microfauna or macrofauna have been found in this formation. The best indication of age comes from pollen and spores obtained from dark carbonaceous clay. Rachele (1976) analyzed the microflora from the Legler site and noted that the Cohansey had a rich and varied assemblage including several genera labeled "exotics" which no longer occur in the northeastern United States: Engelhardia, Pterocarya, Podocarpus, and Cyathea. Greller and Rachele (1984) estimated a middle Miocene age. Ager's (in Owens and others, 1988) analysis of the Cohansey from a corehole at Mays Landing also suggests a middle Miocene (Serravallian) age.
Englishtown Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Campanian)
Englishtown Formation - Sand, quartz, fine- to coarsegrained, gravelly, massive, bioturbated, medium- to dark-gray; weathers light brown, yellow, or reddish brown, locally interbedded with thin to thick beds of dark clay. Abundant carbonaceous matter, with large lignitized logs occur locally, especially in clay strata. Feldspar, glauconite, and muscovite are minor sand constituents. Sand is extensively trough crossbedded particularly west of Mount Holly, Burlington County. In a few places in the western outcrop belt, trace fossils are abundant, typically the burrow Ophiomorpha nodosa. Unit is pyritic, especially in the carbonaceous-rich beds where pyrite is finely disseminated grains or pyritic masses as much as 0.6 m (2 ft) in diameter. Lowest part of unit is a massive sand that contains small to large, soft, light-gray siderite concretions. The Englishtown underlies a broad belt throughout the map area and ranges from about 45 m (148 ft) thick in the northern part of the central sheet to 30 m (98 ft) thick in the western part of the central sheet to 15 m (49 ft) in the southern sheet. Best exposures occur along Crosswicks Creek in the Allentown quadrangle and along Oldmans Creek. The basal contact with the underlying Woodbury Formation or Merchantville Formation is transitional over several meters. The age of the Englishtown in outcrop could not be determined directly but was inferred from stratigraphic position and pollen content. Wolfe (1976) designated the microflora of the unit as Zone CA4 and assigned it to the lower Campanian.
Hornerstown Formation (lower Paleocene, Danian)
Hornerstown Formation - Sand, glauconite, fine- to medium-grained, locally clayey, massive, dark-gray to dusky-green; weathers dusky yellow or red brown, extensively bioturbated, locally has a small amount of quartz at base. Glauconite grains are typically dark green and have botryoidal shapes. The Hornerstown weathers readily to iron oxide because of its high glauconite content. The Hornerstown in most areas is nearly pure glauconite greensand. The Hornerstown crops out in a narrow belt throughout most of the western outcrop area. In the northern part of the central sheet, it is extensively dissected and occurs as several outliers. Throughout its outcrop belt in the central sheet, the Hornerstown unconformably overlies several formations: the Tinton Formation in the extreme northern area; the Red Bank Formation in the northwestern and west-central areas; and the Navesink Formation in the west-central and southern areas. In the southern sheet, it unconformably overlies the Mount Laurel Formation. The unconformable basal contact locally contains a bed of reworked phosphatic vertebrate and invertebrate fossils. For the most part, however, the basal contact is characterized by an intensely bioturbated zone in which many burrows filled with bright green glauconite sand from the Hornerstown Formation project down into the dark-gray matrix of the underlying Navesink Formation. In a few exposures, a thin layer of medium- to coarse-grained quartz sand separates the Hornerstown from the underlying unit. The Hornerstown is 1.5 to 7 m (5-23 ft) thick. A Cretaceous age was assigned to this unit by Koch and Olsson (1977) based, in part, on a vertebrate fauna found at Sewell, Gloucester County. However, early Paleocene calcareous nannofossil Zones NP 2-4 were found in a core at Allaire State Park, Monmouth County. This is the only locality in New Jersey where Zone NP 2 was observed; otherwise, the Hornerstown is confined to Zones NP 3 and NP 4. Lowermost Paleocene Zone NP 1 was not identified, and it is thought that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in New Jersey may be unconformable. A complete Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary section was recovered at the Bass River borehole (ODP Leg 174AX). It contained the uppermost Maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil Micula prinsii Zone below a spherule layer and the basal Danian planktonic foraminiferal Guembeletria cretacea P0 Zone just above the layer (Olsson and others, 1997).
Hornerstown Formation (lower Paleocene, Danian)
Hornerstown Formation - Sand, glauconite, clayey, extensively bioturbated, massive, medium-green in the shallow subsurface. Common to abundant microfauna in the subsurface are not present in outcrop. In the deep subsurface, the Hornerstown Formation consists of glauconite sand at base, overlain by a thin, laminated, dark-gray clay-silt that grades upward into a finegrained, clayey glauconite quartz sand. The formation is very thin and rarely exceeds 7.5 m (25 ft) in thickness. The basal contact with the underlying Kc4 cycle is difficult to place because both units are glauconitic sand; however, the basal Hornerstown contains dark-brown phosphatic debris. Less commonly the contact is marked by extensive burrows filled with glauconite sand that project downward into the underlying unit. Gamma logs from the Hornerstown have a very large gamma kick at the base of the formation. The age of the Hornerstown is early Paleocene (Danian) based on the presence of calcareous nannofossils (Chiasmolithus consuetus and Ellipsolithus macellus) and foraminifera characteristic of zones NP 3 and NP 4, and P1a to P1c (Chengjie Liu, Rutgers University, written commun., 1993), respectively.
Lower Member of the Kirkwood Formation (lower Miocene, Burdigalian and Aquitanian)
Lower Member - Sand and clay. Upper sand facies: sand, typically fine- to medium-grained, massive to thick-bedded, locally crossbedded, light-yellow to white, locally very micaceous and extensively stained by iron oxides in near-surface beds. The thick-bedded strata commonly consist of interbedded fine-grained, micaceous sand and gravelly, coarse- to fine-grained sand. Some beds are intensely burrowed. Trough crossbedded strata with high concentrations of ilmenite and a few burrows are most commonly seen in the Lakewood quadrangle. Lower clay facies: clay and clay-silt, massive to thin-bedded, dark-gray, micaceous, contains wood fragments, flattened lignitized twigs, and other plant debris. Locally, the clay has irregularly shaped sand pockets, which may represent some type of burrow. In the least weathered beds, the sand of the upper sand facies is principally quartz and muscovite with lesser amounts of feldspar. The light-mineral fraction of the dark-colored clay has significantly more feldspar (10-15 percent) and rock fragments (10-15 percent) than the upper sand facies, where the feldspar was probably leached during weathering. The basal beds have a reworked zone 0.3 to 1.2 m (1-4 ft) thick that contains fine- to very coarse grained sand and, locally, gravel. These beds are very glauconitic and less commonly contain wood fragments. Reworked zones are present throughout the lower member. The lower member consists of a lower finegrained, clayey, dark-colored, micaceous sand (transgressive) and an upper massive or thick-bedded to crossbedded, light-colored sand (regressive). The lower, dark clayey unit was formerly called the Asbury Park Member. The clay-silt was previously called the Asbury Clay by Kummel and Knapp (1904). The upper sand facies has been observed only in pits and roadcuts. It is poorly exposed because of its sandy nature. In the central sheet, the lower clay facies is exposed in pits north of Farmingdale, Monmouth County; in a few cuts along the Manasquan River, north of Farmingdale; and along the Shark River, northeast of Farmingdale. In the southern sheet, the lower clay facies is exposed only where the Coastal Plain was deeply entrenched and stripped away. In the southwesternmost part of the southern sheet, for example, the Cohansey Formation and much of the upper sand facies were stripped away by successive entrenchments of the Delaware River. On the central sheet, the lower member ranges in thickness from 20 to 30 m (66-98 ft) along strike, but thickens to over 60 m (197 ft) to the southeast. On the southern sheet, the unit ranges in thickness from 15 to 25 m (49-82 ft). The age of the lower member is based on the presence of the diatom Actinoptychus heliopelta, which was recovered from an exposure southwest of Farmingdale near Oak Glen, Monmouth County (Goldstein, 1974). This diatom places the lower member in the lower part of the ECDZ 1 of Andrews (1987), indicative of an early Miocene (Burdigalian) age (Andrews, 1988). Sugarman and others (1993) report strontium-isotope ages of 22.6 to 20.8 Ma, thereby extending the age of the unit to Aquitanian.
Lower Member of the Kirkwood Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian)
Lower Member - Complex unit in which facies changes are common. In outcrop, some of the lower member is a light-colored quartz sand (Grenloch facies of Isphording, 1970). The facies pinches out rapidly in the subsurface, and the unit is primarily a massive to finely laminated, dark-gray clay (Alloway clay of Kummel and Knapp, 1904). This clay facies occurs as far south as Clayton, Gloucester County, where the lower part changes to a fossiliferous clayey silt. The lower clayey facies thickens to over 30 m (98 ft) in the coastal region. Here, the lower facies is mostly dark-gray clayey silt that is locally very fossiliferous. The unit varies in thickness but is thickest, as much as 80 m (262 ft), in the southeastern part of the central sheet. South of Bridgeton, Cumberland County, sand is present at the top of the member. This sand thickens to over 23 m (75 ft) at the coast where it is part of the "800 foot" sand, the principal aquifer in the coastal region. Quartz and siliceous rock fragments are the major sand minerals. Feldspars typically constitute less than 10 percent of the sand fraction except in the reworked beds where they make up as much as 25 percent of the sand. Mica and wood fragments are minor constituents. The basal contact with the underlying unit is sharp and unconformable. Commonly there is a 0.3- to 1-m (1- to 3-ft)-thick zone along this contact in which coarse-grained quartz sand and some gravel are present. Because of the quartz sand in the lower member in outcrop, some considered the lower member and the Cohansey Formation to be transitional (Isphording, 1970). Obviously this is not the case as there are three other members (Shiloh Marl, Wildwood, and Belleplain) lying between the lower member and the Cohansey. The age of the lower member was determined from planktic foraminifera and diatoms, and from strontium-isotope age estimates. The foraminiferal assemblage includes Globigerina praebulloides, Globigerinoides trilobus, G. altiapertura, and Globorotalia siakensis. These species are characteristic of the lower Miocene Zone 5 of Blow (1969) of Burdigalian age. The diatom assemblage is characterized by Actinoptychus heliopelta, Aulacodiscus rogersii, Coscinodiscus lewisianus, Sceptroneis caduceus, and Triceratium acutum. These diatoms are characteristic of ECDZ 1 of Andrews (1988), which is considered to be early Miocene (Burdigalian) in age. The strontium-isotope analyses of shells from this member indicate ages from 23 to 20.2 Ma (Aquitanian), thereby extending the age of this member (Sugarman and others, 1993). The pollen in the clay facies of the Kirkwood, as determined from the ACGS-4 drillhole, are oak, hickory, and pine with smaller amounts of beech, black gum, sweet gum, alder, elm, linden, and birch. The sandy facies has essentially the same assemblage but has unusually high concentrations of beech. Exotic species such as Podocarpus and Momipites are common in the unit. The cool floral elements found in the overlying Belleplain and Wildwood Members were not found in the lower member.
Magothy Formation (Upper Cretaceous, middle and lower Santonian)
Magothy Formation - Sand, fine- to coarsegrained, locally very gravelly (pebbles less than 1.3 cm (0.5 in) in diameter) especially in updip areas, typically cross stratified, massive, horizontally bedded, light-gray to white, carbonized wood (several centimeters long) and colorless mica scattered throughout. Black to dark-gray, very carbonaceous clay is locally interstratified with the sand. No calcareous fossils were recovered from the Magothy Formation in the shallow subsurface. In the Freehold drillhole the thin basal bed of the Magothy is composed of quartz gravel (maximum clast diameter, about 2.5 cm (1 in)). The lower part of the formation above the gravel consists of thin-bedded white clay interbedded with fine- to coarse-grained, poorly sorted, thickbedded, light-colored, somewhat micaceous quartz sand. The interbedded clay becomes dark gray up section and the sand is slightly glauconitic and locally shelly. Quartz is the major sand mineral. Siliceous rock fragments, mica, and feldspar are minor constituents. In general, this formation appears to be fluvial near the base (upper delta plain) and gradually becomes more marine upward (shelf). The overall sedimentologic pattern suggests a net transgression during deposition of the Magothy with shelf deposits overriding a nonmarine (probably deltaic) facies. Downdip at Buena, Atlantic County, the Magothy is 22 m (72 ft) thick and is primarily a massive to finely laminated, dark-gray, woody clay-silt. Unit is as much as 55 m (180 ft) thick in the northern part of the central sheet and generally thins to the southwest. The age of the Magothy is best defined by pollen. Christopher (1979) placed this palynoflora in his Zone V of early and late Santonian age. He also recognized three assemblage zones within Zone V, the Complexiopollis exiqua-Santalacites minor Zone (lowest), the ?Pseudoplicapollis longiannulata-Plicapollis incisa Zone (middle), and the ?Pseudoplicapollis cuneata-Semioculopollis verrucosa Zone (highest). All three zones are present in the Magothy in New Jersey. The foraminifera Marginotruncana marginata and Rosita fornicata were collected from the Island Beach corehole at 550 m (1804 ft) and are indicative of the Dicarinella asymmetrica Zone. Because of the overall character of the foram assemblage it is probable that these fossils indicate a late Santonian rather than early Campanian age (H.J. Dowsett, written commun., 1992). The Magothy, therefore, is Santonian or older in age.
Magothy Formation (Upper Cretaceous, middle and lower Santonian)
Magothy Formation - Sand, quartz, fine- to coarse-grained, locally gravelly (especially at the base), white; weathers yellow brown or orange brown, interbedded with thin-bedded clay or dark-gray clay-silt mainly at the top of the formation. Muscovite and feldspar are minor sand constituents. Large wood fragments occur in many clay layers. Clay weathers to gray brown or white. Formation characterized by local vertical and lateral facies changes. The Magothy is best exposed and thickest (about 80 m (262 ft)) in the Raritan Bay area. The outcrop belt is widest in the north and narrows to the southwest. The formation is about 25 m (82 ft) thick or less in the southern sheet. The formation is poorly exposed because of its sandy nature and its widespread cover by younger sediments. The old geologic map of New Jersey (Lewis and Kummel, 1910-1912, revised 1950) showed the Magothy to consist of only one lithology (Cliffwood beds at Cliffwood Beach, Monmouth County). Subsequent pollen studies of the Magothy and the underlying Raritan Formation showed most of the Raritan to be the same age as the Magothy. Wolfe and Pakiser (1971) redefined and considerably expanded the Magothy. Kummel and Knapp (1904) had already recognized that the Magothy, as used here, contained a large number of lithologies. At the time of their study, the Magothy was extensively mined for clay and sand and was well exposed. Their subdivisions had economic designations (for example, Amboy stoneware clay). Barksdale and others (1943) later gave geographic names to these subdivisions, discussed individually below. The lower contact of the Magothy in the Delaware River valley is difficult to place because the lower part of the Magothy is lithically similar to the underlying Potomac Formation. The contact is placed at the base of the lowest dark-gray clay in the Magothy. The best faunas from the Magothy were obtained from siderite concretions and slabs in and near Cliffwood Beach representing only the top of the formation. These faunas were discussed in detail by Weller (1904, 1907) and supplemented by Sohl (in Owens and others, 1977). The presence of Ostrea cretacea in the Cliffwood Beach fauna suggests that the upper part of the Magothy is late Santonian in age. Wolfe and Pakiser (1971) and Christopher (1979, 1982) discussed the microfloral assemblage in the Magothy. Christopher subdivided the Magothy into three zones: Complexipollis exigua-Santalacites minor (oldest), ?Pseudoplicapollis longiannulata-Plicapollis incisa (middle), and ?Pseudoplicapollis cuneata-Semioculopollis verrucosa (youngest). The oldest zone, originally considered to be as old as Turonian, was subsequently considered to be post-Coniacian Christopher, 1982). The middle and upper zones are also probably Santonian. Christopher (1979) followed the nomenclature for the subdivisions elaborated upon earlier. The Cliffwood and Morgan beds, and, presumably the upper thin-bedded sequence, would include the youngest pollen zone; the Amboy Stoneware Clay Member and perhaps the uppermost part of the Old Bridge Sand Member, the middle pollen zone; and the lower part of the Old Bridge Sand Member and South Amboy Fire Clay Member, the oldest pollen zone. The Magothy is considered herein to be of Santonian age. Cliffwood beds - Typically very sandy, horizontally bedded to crossbedded, mainly small-scale trough crossbeds. Thin layers of dark, fine, carbonaceous matter are interbedded with sand. Carbonaceous units are conspicuously micaceous; the sand is less so. Sand is typically fine to medium grained and locally burrowed. Burrows include the small-diameter Ophiomorpha nodosa and some that are not clay lined. Slabs of dark-reddish-brown siderite were common at the base of the bluff at Cliffwood Beach before the outcrop was covered. Some of these slabs had many fossil molds, typically a large number of pelecypods. Lower in the section, between high and low tide level, there is a pale-gray clay-silt about 1.5 m (5 ft) thick with many small reddish-brown siderite concretions. These concretions have many fossils that were described in detail by Weller (1904). The Cliffwood beds are about 7.5 m (25 ft) thick in outcrop. Equivalents of the Cliffwood beds are exposed near the Delaware River between Trenton and Florence, Burlington County. These beds are mainly sand, as are those at Cliffwood Beach, but they tend to have more crossbedding than the typical Cliffwood strata and no burrows or marine fossils. In addition, beds of quartz gravel are present in the Cliffwood near Riverside, Burlington County. Morgan beds - Occur only in the northern part of the central sheet. They consist of interbedded, thin, dark-colored clay and fine-grained, light-colored, micaceous sand. Clay is locally more abundant in the Morgan than in the Cliffwood beds. Sand ranges from massive to locally crossbedded and locally has fine organic matter. This unit is exposed only in the South Amboy quadrangle where it is as much as 12 m (39 ft) thick. It grades downward into underlying clay. Amboy Stoneware Clay Member - Crops out only in the South Amboy quadrangle in the central sheet and is mainly dark-gray, white-weathering, interbedded clay and silt to fine-grained quartz sand. Clay has abundant, fine, carbonaceous matter and fine mica flakes. Small cylindrical burrows are abundant in this unit. Locally, the clay is interbedded with sand and contains large pieces of lignitized, bored (Teredolites) logs. Large slabs of pyrite-cemented sand are associated with the woody beds. Amber occurs in some of the wood. Unit is approximately 7.5 m (25 ft) thick, but pinches out along strike. The Amboy Stoneware is disconformable on the underlying sand. Old Bridge Sand Member - Predominantly a light-colored sand, extensively crossbedded and locally interbedded with dark-gray laminae; clay is highly carbonaceous, woody, in discontinuous beds, especially near the base. The scale of crossbedding varies from small to large. Locally, small burrows are present. Unit is as much as 12 m (39 ft) thick and rests disconformably on the underlying unit. South Amboy Fire Clay Member - Basal member of the Magothy Formation. Unit resembles the Amboy Stoneware Clay Member, particularly in its lensing character. Unit is best exposed in the central sheet in the South Amboy quadrangle and in the Delaware River valley at the base of the bluffs at Florence. The South Amboy is a dark, massive to finely laminated clay, locally oxidized to white or red. Unit fills large channels and has local concentrations of large, pyrite-encrusted, lignitized logs. Some of the clay is slumped, suggesting post-depositional undercutting during channel migration. The clay is interbedded with fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded sand. The basal contact with the underlying Raritan is well exposed in the Sayre and Fisher Pit in Sayreville, Middlesex County, where the contact is marked by a deeply weathered gravel zone.
Manasquan Formation (lower Eocene, Ypresian)
Manasquan Formation - Clay to clay-silt, massive to finely laminated, green to gray-green, extensively bioturbated. Calcareous microfossils are abundant in this unit. In the northwestern outcrop belt and shallow subsurface of the central sheet, the lower beds of the Manasquan Formation consist of a maximum of 10 m (33 ft) of fine- to coarse-grained, somewhat clayey, bluish-green glauconitic quartz sand. No calcareous macrofossils were found in this lithology. The sand minerals in the basal sand facies, excluding glauconite, consist of quartz, feldspar (10 to 25 percent), and siliceous rock fragments (a few percent). The glauconitic quartz sand is overlain to the southwest by a light- to dark-green, locally glauconitic, sandy clay-silt. This clay-silt is present at the base of the unit in the shallow subsurface. Eastward and in the intermediate subsurface, the Manasquan is primarily a clayey glauconite sand. In the deep subsurface, the Manasquan is primarily a massive to finely laminated, lightyellow clay-silt that has high concentrations of calcareous microfossils and has several hard indurated layers. In general, the formation thickens to the southeast where it is more than 60 m (197 ft) thick. The basal contact with the underlying Vincentown Formation is sharp and contains a thin zone, typically 0.61 m (2 ft) thick, of reworked glauconite sand, phosphatic debris, and sparse quartz granules. Gamma-ray logs through the Manasquan Formation have a large gamma spike along the basal contact. The age of the Manasquan was determined from calcareous nannofossils and, to a lesser degree, from foraminifera. The lower part of the Manasquan is assigned to the upper part of Zone NP 9 on the basis of the calcareous nannofossils Campylosphaera dela and Lophodolithus nascens and the absence of Zone NP 10 species. The upper part of the formation lies within Zone NP 13. This zone is characterized by the absence of Rhomboaster orthostylus and the presence of Discoaster lodoensis (Poore and Bybell, 1988). The foraminifera Planorotalites palmerae, which is present in this unit, has a range that correlates with the lower part of Zone NP 13 (Poore and Bybell, 1988).
Marshalltown Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper and middle Campanian)
Marshalltown Formation - Sand, quartz and glauconite, fine- to medium-grained, silty and clayey, massive, dark-gray; weathers light brown or pale red, extensively bioturbated. Very glauconitic in basal few meters; glauconite concentration decreases upward so that in upper part of unit, quartz and glauconite are nearly equal. Feldspar, mica, pyrite, and phosphatic fragments are minor sand constituents. Locally, very micaceous (mostly green chlorite) with sparse carbonized wood fragments. Fine-grained pyrite abundant throughout formation. Local thin, pebbly zones with large fossil impressions occur in the middle of the formation. In the upper part of the formation, quartz increases to about 40 percent. Unit crops out in a narrow belt throughout the map area and forms isolated outliers in the central sheet. Best exposures are along Crosswicks Creek in the Allentown quadrangle. In the southern sheet, the Marshalltown underlies a narrow belt in the uplands and broadens to the southwest. Many Marshalltown exposures occur along Oldmans Creek and its tributaries near Auburn, Gloucester County. The contact with the underlying Englishtown Formation is sharp and unconformable. The basal few centimeters of the Marshalltown contain siderite concentrations, clay balls, and wood fragments reworked from the underlying Englishtown. Many burrows, some filled with glauconite, project downward into the Englishtown for about one meter (3 ft) giving a spotted appearance to the upper part of the Englishtown (Owens and others, 1970). The Marshalltown is the basal transgressive unit of a sedimentation cycle that includes the regressive deposits of the overlying Wenonah and Mount Laurel Formations resembling the overlying Red Bank Formation to Navesink Formation cycle in its asymmetry. Within the map area, only a few long-ranging megafossils occur in the Moorestown quadrangle (Richards, 1967). To the south, in the type area, Weller (1907) reported diverse molluskan assemblages indicating a Campanian age. More importantly, Olsson (1964) reported the late Campanian foraminifera Globotruncana calcarata Cushman from the upper part of the formation. No G. calcarata were found during our investigations. Wolfe (1976) assigned the pollen assemblage of the Marshalltown to the CA5A Zone considered to be Campanian. The Marshalltown has most recently been assigned to Zone CC 20-21 (Sugarman and others, 1995) of middle and late Campanian age (Perch-Nielsen, 1985).
Merchantville Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Campanian)
Merchantville Formation - Sand, glauconite, locally has high quartz content, very clayey and silty, massive to thick-bedded, grayish-olive-green to dark-greenish-gray; weathers moderate brown or moderate yellow brown. Mica, feldspar, and pyrite are minor sand constituents. Very micaceous at base. Locally, has extensive iron incrustations in near-surface weathered beds. Fossil molds are mostly phosphatic. Fossils typically occur in siderite concretions. No calcareous fossils were found in outcrop. The Merchantville forms a continuous narrow to wide belt throughout the map area. The unit is about 6 m (20 ft) thick in the northern part of the central sheet, about 20 m (66 ft) thick in the Trenton area, and 12 to 15 m (39-49 ft) thick throughout the southern sheet. The formation is best exposed in the Trenton East quadrangle, mainly in the tributaries on the western side of Blacks Creek and south of Bordentown, Burlington County, where the entire thickness of the formation can be seen in gullies (Owens and Minard, 1964b). The basal contact with the underlying Magothy or Cheesequake Formations is sharp and disconformable. At most places, a reworked zone about 0.3 to 1 m (1-3 ft) thick is present at the base. This basal bed contains reworked lignitized wood, siderite concretions as much as 13 cm (5 in) in diameter, scattered pebbles and coarse-grained quartz sand and is burrowed. Most burrows project downward into the underlying formations. The Merchantville is the basal bed of a lower Campanian transgressive-regressive cycle that includes the overlying Woodbury and Englishtown Formations. Merchantville faunas were analyzed by Sohl (in Owens and others, 1977) who concluded that northern fauna represented deposition on a lower shoreface or in the transition to an inner shelf, whereas the southern fauna was a deeper water assemblage, probably inner shelf. Macrofossils occur as internal and external molds and include the ammonites Menabites (Delawarella) delawarensis and Scaphites (Scaphites) hippocrepis III. The Scaphites is of the type III variety of Cobban (1969) and is indicative of the lower, but not the lowest, Campanian. More recently, Kennedy and Cobban (1993), detailing the ammonite assemblage that includes Baculites haresi, Chesapeakella nodatum, Cryptotexanites paedomorphicus sp., Glyptoxoceras sp., Menabites (Delawarella) delawarensis, M. (Delawarella) vanuxemi, Menabites (Bererella) sp., Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) sp., Placenticeras placenta, Pseudoscholenbachia cf. P. chispaensis, Scaphites (Scaphites) hippocrepis III, Submortoniceras punctatum, S. uddeni, and Texanites (Texanites) sp., concluded that the Merchantville is of late early Campanian age. Wolfe (1976) indicated that the Merchantville microflora was distinct from overlying and underlying units and designated it Zone CA2 of early Campanian age.
Mt. Laurel Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper Campanian)
Mt. Laurel Formation - Sand, quartz, massive to crudely bedded, typically coarsens upward, interbedded with thin clay beds. Glauconite and feldspar are minor sand constituents. Muscovite and biotite are abundant near the base. Lower part of formation is a fine- to medium-grained, clayey, dark-gray, glauconitic (maximum 25 percent) quartz sand. Typically weathers to white or light yellow and locally stained orange brown by iron oxides. Small pebbles scattered throughout, especially in the west-central area. Locally, has small, rounded siderite concretions in the interbedded clay-sand sequence. Granules and gravel are abundant in the upper 1.5 m (5 ft). Upper beds are light gray and weather light brown to reddish brown. The Mount Laurel is 10 m (33 ft) thick from the Roosevelt quadrangle to the Runnemede quadrangle in the central sheet. Thickness varies in the northern part of the map area due, in part, to extensive interfingering of this formation with the underlying Wenonah Formation. Weller (1907) and Kummel (1940) recognized only about 1.5 m (5 ft) of the Mount Laurel in the north. In this report those beds are assigned to the overlying Navesink Formation. The interbedded sequence, the major facies in the north, ranges to about 4.5 m (15 ft) thick. These interbeds have well-developed large burrows (Martino and Curran, 1990), mainly Ophiomorpha nodosa, and less commonly Rosselia socialis. The Mount Laurel is gradational into the underlying Wenonah Formation. A transition zone of 1.5 m (5 ft) is marked by an increase in clay, silt, and mica into the Wenonah, especially in the west-central area of the central sheet. The oyster Agerostrea falcata occurs in the lower part of the formation. Exogyra cancellata and Belemnitella americana are abundant in upper beds in the west-central area of the central sheet (New Egypt quadrangle). The Mount Laurel Formation is of late Campanian age based on the assignment of Zone CC 22b to the formation by Sugarman and others (1995) and the occurrence of Exogyra cancellata near Mullica Hill, Gloucester County.
Navesink Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Maastrichtian)
Navesink Formation - Sand, glauconite, medium-grained, clayey and silty, massive, dark-gray to dark-gray-green, extensively bioturbated, locally contains large calcareous shells; sand-size mica, locally abundant; weathers light brown or red brown. Basal quartz sand is fine- to coarse-grained, pebbly, massive, light-yellow, and somewhat glauconitic, as much as 2 m (7 ft) thick and formed by the reworking of the underlying Mount Laurel Formation (Owens and others, 1977). Exogyra costata and the belemnite Belemnitella americana occur in the basal quartz sand. Crops out in a narrow belt throughout map area. Fresh exposures occur along tributaries of Raccoon Creek near Mullica Hill, Gloucester County. The Navesink is 3 to 7.5 m (10-25 ft) thick. The Navesink and Red Bank deposits represent a transgressive (Navesink)-regressive (Red Bank) cycle of sedimentation (Owens and Sohl, 1969). The cycle is unconformity-bounded at top and bottom. Within the cycle, the formational contact is gradational. The age of the Navesink was determined from both the macrofauna and microfauna. Planktic foraminifera from the lower part of the Navesink are indicative of the Rugotruncana subcircumnodifera Subzone of early Maastrichtian age (Smith, in Owens and others, 1977). The upper part contains the mollusks Exogyra costata, Sphenodiscus lobatus, and Pycnodonte vesicularis indicating a middle to late Maastrichtian age. Planktic foraminifera from the upper part represent the Gansserina gansseri Subzone of middle Maastrichtian age (Smith, in Owens and others, 1977). Pollen in the Navesink and Sandy Hook Member of the Red Bank are similar; the Navesink microflora is a CA6/MA-1 Zone in Wolfe's (1976) classification. The Navesink, therefore, ranges from early to late Maastrichtian. Sugarman and others (1995) assigned a middle Maastrichtian Zone CC 25 to the Navesink.
Potomac Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Cenomanian)
Potomac Formation - Predominantly clay to clay-silt, thinly laminated to thick-bedded, mottled red, white, and orange-brown, less commonly dark-gray and woody; interbedded with thin beds and lenses of very fine to medium-grained, massive, white to orange-brown, micaceous sand. Lithologies are typical of the shallow subsurface. Down dip, these lithologies interfinger with thin to thick beds of marine clay-silt, commonly glauconitic and locally shelly. Marine beds are most prevalent in the southernmost part of the southern sheet. Unit 3 was cored in its entirety at Freehold where it is approximately 75 m (246 ft) thick. In the core, the basal 6 m (20 ft) consists of red or mottled red and white clay interbedded with gravel and fine- to coarse-grained sand. The clay is pervaded by reddish-brown siderite. Most of the overlying beds consist of interbedded dark-colored clay, locally weathered to pale yellow or white, and fine- to medium-grained, light-colored sand. Layers that contain fine black carbonaceous material to large lignitized wood pieces are common in unit 3 in this core. At Toms River, the unit is about 60 m (197 ft) thick and consists of dark- to pale-gray clay, locally weathering to white or yellowish gray, and light-colored, micaceous sand. In general, the darker colored clay is more common in the upper part of the section. Locally, the sand has very small amounts of glauconite which may indicate some local marine influence during sedimentation. The age of unit 3 was determined from pollen in the nonmarine deposits and foraminifera in the marine sections. Typical forms found in Zone III in New Jersey are Ajatipollis sp. A, Tricolpites nemejci, T. vulgaris, Tricolporoidites bohemicus, Tricolporoidites sp. A, T. sp. B, and Tricolporopollenites sp. B (Doyle and Robbins, 1977). In the marine facies, Petters (1976) reports a planktic foraminiferal suite containing Praeglobotruncana delrioensis and Rotalipora greenhornensis. Both the pollen and foraminiferal assemblages suggest an early Cenomanian age.
Potomac Formation, unit 3 (Upper Cretaceous, lower Cenomanian)
Potomac Formation - Sand, fine- to coarse-grained, locally gravelly, crossbedded, light-colored, interbedded with white or variegated red and yellow, massive clay, and rarely dark-gray, woody clay. The Potomac Formation crops out only in the Delaware River valley where the river and its tributaries have eroded away the overlying formations. The Potomac has been mapped in a broad belt parallel to the inner edge of the Coastal Plain. Although mapped in a broad belt, the Potomac is very poorly exposed because of the widespread cover of surficial sediments. The best exposures occur where surficial material is mined away in the Camden area. Unit is about 45 m (148 ft) thick. Contact with the overlying Magothy Formation is difficult to pick where the basal Magothy also contains variegated clays. Most of the basal Magothy has more dark-colored clay, and the contact was drawn by using this criterion. The basal contact of the Potomac with the underlying crystalline rock is not exposed in New Jersey. Biostratigraphically, the Potomac has been separated into pollen zones I, II, and III (Doyle, 1969; Doyle and Robbins, 1977). Samples from the Potomac Formation in the Camden area and along the Delaware River nearby contain pollen assemblages of early Cenomanian age (Zone III) (Les Sirkin, written commun., 1988).
Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Raritan Formation (Cook, 1868) - Consists of upper clayey-silt (Woodbridge Clay Member) and lower sand (Farrington Sand Member) in map area. Woodbridge Clay Member is palered-orange weathering, grayish-black to dark-gray micaceous silt, very clayey; interbedded and locally interbedded with light-gray, very clayey, fine- to very-fine-grained micaceous sand containing primarily quartz and feldspar. Abundant layers of small, pyrite-coated wood fragments. Siderite in discontinuous beds and in flattened slab concretions as much as 1 m (3 ft) in diameter are common. Mollusk casts common in siderite near top of formation. Typically about 24 m (80 ft) thick. Farrington Sand Member is white, fine-to medium-grained, very micaceous, crossbedded sand, interbedded with thin to thick, darkgray, silty beds. Exposed only in pits dug below the overlying Woodbridge Clay Member. Typically about 8 m (25 ft) thick. Fossils include late Cenomanian ammonites Metoicoceras bergquisti and Metengonoceras sp. in upper part of Woodbridge (Cobban and Kennedy, 1990) and pollen of the Complexipollis-Atlantopollis assemblage zone (= Zone IV) of late Cenomanian to early Turonian age (Christopher, 1979; 1982).
Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper Cenomanian)
Raritan Formation - Clay, silty, massive, dark-gray, shelly. Unit is generally restricted to the deep subsurface and only subcrops in the northern part of the central sheet. Petters (1976) proposed a new formation, the Bass River Formation, which included the Raritan as well as the lowermost part of the Magothy and the uppermost part of the Potomac Formation, unit 3. In this report, the name Bass River is not used. Thickness values were obtained from interpretations of geophysical logs from the few drillholes that penetrated this formation; consequently, these values are, at best, speculative. It is estimated that the Raritan is at most 100 m (328 ft) thick in the southernmost part of New Jersey. The formation contains both nonmarine and marine facies. The Freehold drillhole shows the best section containing both facies. In this drillhole the Raritan is approximately 60 m (197 ft) thick. The lower 12 m (39 ft) consists of interbedded, fine- to medium-grained, thin- to thick-bedded, light to dark-colored quartz sand and light- to dark-colored clay or clayey silt. Small to large pieces of lignitized wood are characteristic of and common to abundant in these beds. The middle 30 m (98 ft) consists of laminated to thinly bedded, dark-gray, micaceous clay and fine-grained, light-colored, micaceous quartz sand. Reddish-brown secondary cementation is common in the strata of this interval. Lignitized wood fragments are also locally abundant in these beds but on average the wood pieces are much smaller than those seen in the basal beds. The upper 18 m (59 ft) also is dominated by the laminated to thin-bedded sequences of micaceous clay and quartz sand but has small amounts of glauconite sand. A thin layer of large fossils (primarily Exogyra woolmani) is present in these upper beds. At the very top of this interval some of the beds are cemented by siderite. In general, the Raritan appears to be fluvial in the lower part, marginal marine in the middle, and marine at the top. North and west of the Freehold drillhole the Raritan is mostly interbedded nonmarine crossbedded sand and black to variegated clay. At Island Beach, southwest of Freehold, the Raritan is wholly marine and consists largely of dark-gray, shelly, micaceous clay at the base and fine-grained, dark-gray, shelly, micaceous clay at the top. It is assumed that the Raritan is late Cenomanian to possibly early Turonian in age as determined from northern New Jersey sections. In outcrop, the Raritan is early late Cenomanian in age on the basis of ammonites (Cobban and Kennedy, 1990). Pollen from these outcrops belongs to the Complexiopollis-Atlantopollis Assemblage Zone (zone IV, Christopher, 1979). Downdip, Petters (1976) reports the planktic foraminifer Marginotruncana helvetica, a middle Turonian marker, from beds assigned to pollen zone IV at Toms River, Ocean County.
Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper Cenomanian)
Raritan Formation - Consists of an upper clayey silt (Woodbridge Clay Member) and a lower sand (Farrington Sand Member). Formation occurs only in northern part of central sheet. Woodbridge Clay Member - Silt, clayey, dark-gray; weathers to red brown or white, locally interbedded with light-gray, clayey, fine- to very fine grained sand (primarily quartz and mica with little feldspar). Very micaceous (muscovite, chlorite, and biotite) in both silty and sandy beds. Very woody, mostly fine pieces in layers and coated with pyrite. Locally, tree stumps, in upright position, are found near base of unit as are transported individual logs several feet in length. Siderite occurs in discontinuous beds and as flattened slab concretions as much as 0.6 m (2 ft) in maximum diameter. Fossil casts of marine mollusks are present, particularly near the top of the formation. Locally, well-developed burrows of Ophiomorpha nodosa filled with iron oxides weather out of the clay-silt. The Woodbridge is approximately 20 m (66 ft) thick in the vicinity of Sayreville, Middlesex County, where the South River has stripped away the overlying Magothy Formation, and it crops out in many places in the Perth Amboy and New Brunswick quadrangles to the north, but not in the quadrangles to the south or southwest. The Woodbridge does not crop out in the Delaware River valley southwest of Trenton. The late Cenomanian ammonites Metoicoceras bergquisti and Metengonoceras sp. were described from the upper part of the Woodbridge (Cobban and Kennedy, 1990). Pollen from the unit belongs to the Complexipollis-Atlantopollis Assemblage Zone of latest Cenomanian and early Turonian age (Christopher, 1979, 1982). Farrington Sand Member - Sand, quartz, fine- to medium-grained, crossbedded, very micaceous, white, interbedded with thin to thick, dark, silt beds. Rock fragments are a minor sand constituent. No burrows were observed in the unit. Unit is exposed only in pits dug below the overlying Woodbridge Clay Member. Typically, thickness is about 9 to 10.5 m (30-34 ft). Pollen from the Farrington is similar to the pollen in the Woodbridge.
Sandy Hook Member of the Red Bank Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper and middle Maastrichtian)
Sandy Hook Member - Sand, quartz, fine-grained, clayey, very micaceous, massive, dark-gray, fossiliferous. Feldspar, muscovite, chlorite, and biotite are minor sand constituents. Well exposed at Poricy Brook in the Long Branch quadrangle. The Sandy Hook is much thinner than the overlying Shrewsbury Member and is a maximum of 10 m (33 ft) thick.
Shark River Formation (upper and middle Eocene, Priabonian through Lutetian)
Shark River Formation - Consists of three lithofacies, a basal clayey, greenish-gray glauconite sand; a middle dark-green to gray-green silty clay or clayey silt; and an upper medium-gray to gray-green, silty quartz sand. Updip beds are cyclic with a fine- to medium-grained, somewhat clayey, fossiliferous, dark-green, glauconite-quartz (25 percent) sand at the base. The basal lithofacies is about 12 m (39 ft) thick in the southern sheet and 3 m (10 ft) thick in the central sheet. There is a general increase in quartz sand upward and a change in color to dark gray or brownish gray. Locally, some of the beds are more clayey and have more calcareous shell fragments. The middle clay and silt facies is typically the thickest lithofacies in most Shark River sections (as much as 38 m (125 ft) thick) and is massive to thick bedded. The thick-bedded parts typically consist of intercalated silty and clayey beds that are extensively bioturbated. Macro- and microfossils are abundant in this facies. Most of the macrofossils are thin-walled pelecypods. This facies is gradational into the upper quartz-sand facies. The quartz sand is well developed in the Toms River Chemical Plant drillhole, Toms River, Ocean County (sheet 1). This facies apparently was beveled off in the updip areas during erosion prior to deposition of the Kirkwood Formation. The Shark River Formation in the updip area near Bridgeton, Cumberland County (sheet 2), is about 52 m (171 ft) thick. All of the Shark River lithologies in the downdip area are extensively bioturbated. The Shark River is thickest (more than 60 m (197 ft)) in a trough that lies near the middle of the southern sheet. The contact between the Shark River and the underlying Manasquan Formation is sharp and contains a thin zone of reworked glauconite sand, granules of quartz, and phosphatic debris. On most gamma-ray logs through this contact, there is a sharp gamma high reflecting the concentration of phosphatic sediment. The vertical arrangement of facies in this formation is from a transgressive (mostly clay) facies at the base to a regressive (mostly sand) facies at the top. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifera were used to date this unit. Where the unit is thickest, the nannofossils range from the upper part of Zone NP 14 (Rhabdosphaera inflata) to the lower part of Zone NP 18 (Chiasmolithus oamaruensis). The entire sequence of Zones NP 14 through NP 18 was observed only in the ACGS-4 corehole near Mays Landing. The planktic foraminifera zones range from the Turborotalia frontosa Zone at the base to the Turborotalia pomeroli/Turborotalia cerroazulensis Zone at the top. A middle to early late Eocene age for the Shark River is indicated by these zones (Poore and Bybell, 1988).
Shark River Formation (upper and middle Eocene, Priabonian through Lutetian)
Shark River Formation - Glauconite sand, silt, and clay, medium- to coarse-grained, light-brown to medium-gray, locally indurated at top and noncalcareous throughout. Mollusk impressions (mainly Venericardia perantiqua) were observed in the Farmingdale quadrangle. The Shark River is exposed only at a few localities in the central sheet near Farmingdale, Monmouth County, along the Manasquan and Shark Rivers and in several tributaries to Deal Lake near Asbury Park in the Asbury Park quadrangle (Sugarman and Owens, 1994). Most outcrops are small, less than 3 m (10 ft) in height. The contact with the underlying Manasquan Formation was not observed. The Shark River is about 18 m (59 ft) thick and consists of two fining-upward cycles: a glauconite sand is present at the base and a clay or silt is present at the top of each cycle. Calcareous nannofossils in subsurface Shark River sections indicate Zones NP 14 through NP 18 (Martini, 1971) (middle Eocene and early late Eocene).
Shiloh Marl Member of the Kirkwood Formation (lower Miocene, lower Burdigalian)
Shiloh Marl Member - Clay, massive, dark-gray with abundant large mollusks. Unit subcrops near the Delaware River where the overlying Wildwood Member and Cohansey Formation have been stripped away. The Shiloh Marl Member averages about 30 m (98 ft) thick. Diatoms recovered from the Shiloh from the ACGS-4 corehole 5.3 km (3.2 mi) northwest of Mays Landing, Atlantic County, contain the diagnostic diatom Actinoptychus heliopelta (Andrews, 1987) indicating an early Miocene age. Strontium-isotope analysis of shells yielded an age of 20 Ma (Burdigalian) (Sugarman and others, 1993).
Shiloh Marl Member of the Kirkwood Formation (lower Miocene, Burdigalian)
Shiloh Marl Member - Consists of (1) a lower laminated, micaceous, locally fossiliferous (typically thin-walled, small mollusks), dark-gray clay interbedded with very fine grained sand and (2) an upper medium- to coarse-grained, gravelly, massive, pale-brown to medium-gray sand with scattered thin-walled mollusks. Thin, dark-gray clay layers interbedded with thin layers of lignite are common in this upper interval. Like the Wildwood, this unit occurs mainly within the southern sheet and the southeastern part of the central sheet. Thicknesses vary within the basin but are a maximum of 55 m (180 ft). In the Island Beach corehole the unit is clayey at the base and sandy at the top. The basal contact with the underlying unit is sharp but there is little reworked debris along this contact. In detail, the lowest 4.5 m (15 ft) of the unit is a fine- to medium-grained, massive, micaceous, extensively bioturbated, somewhat clayey, quartz sand. Small wood fragments are common. This basal sand bed grades upward into a sequence of horizontally bedded, light- to dark-gray clay and very fine grained, somewhat micaceous quartz sand. Color banding in this interval is strong. A very coarse grained, pale-gray quartz sand with some granules is interbedded with this dominantly clayey sequence. The clayey sequence is overlain by a medium-grained, massive, bioturbated, medium-gray sand similar to the basal sand. This sand grades into a thin- to thick-bedded and crossbedded sequence of dark-gray and brown sand that increases in grain size from coarse to very coarse grained up section. Most of the sand is quartz with lesser amounts of potassium feldspar (6 to 16 percent of the sand fraction). Near the top of the unit, quartz gravel is a common constituent in the very coarse grained sand bed. The age of the Shiloh is early Miocene (Burdigalian) as determined from diatoms. The Shiloh contains Actinoptychus heliopelta (ECDZ 1 of Andrews, 1987, 1988). Strontium age determinations on shells from this unit yielded ages of 20.9 to 19.7 Ma confirming the early Burdigalian age. Pollen studies indicate that the Shiloh has unusually high concentrations of Fagus (beech). Other pollen includes Quercus (oak), Carya (hickory), Pinus (pine), and Ulmus (elm) along with exotics. Overall the assemblage, except possibly for the high concentration of Fagus, indicates a warm-temperate climate during the time of deposition.
Shrewsbury Member of the Red Bank Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper and middle Maastrichtian)
Shrewsbury Member - Sand, quartz, fine- to coarse-grained, somewhat clayey and micaceous, mostly massive with local small-scale crossbedding, light-yellow to red or dark-brown, slightly glauconitic at the base. Feldspar is a minor sand constituent. The Shrewsbury is extensively burrowed but is otherwise unfossiliferous. Locally, small "Callianassa"-type burrows are present. Maximum thickness is over 30 m (98 ft) in the highlands near Matawan. Unit thins southwestward and pinches out near Arneytown, Ocean County. The transition to the underlying Sandy Hook Member occurs within several feet and is characterized by an increase in clay, quartz, silt, mica, and fine pieces of wood downward.
Tinton Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper Maastrichtian)
Tinton Formation - Sand, quartz, and glauconite in varying proportions, very clayey and locally indurated by siderite into hard, massive ledges. Sand is dark gray to dark yellow where unweathered; where weathered, siderite changes color of unit to orange brown because of iron oxides, and the formation is stained or cemented in exotic patterns. The Tinton crops out in the northern part of the central sheet from Sandy Hook, Monmouth County, to the northernmost part of the Roosevelt quadrangle, near Perrineville. Unit unconformably overlies the Red Bank Formation in the high hills of the northern Coastal Plain, most notably near Perrineville and Morganville, Monmouth County. In these updip areas, fine gravel, 1 cm (0.4 in) maximum diameter, or large shell concentrations are found along the basal contact. The typical basal bed is a massive, glauconitic (10-35 percent), fine to medium-grained quartz sand with scattered gravel. The massive character of the basal bed is the result of extensive bioturbation. Burrows, filled with glauconite sand of the Tinton, project down into the quartz sand of the underlying Red Bank Formation. At lower elevations downdip, the Tinton is less weathered, much darker, more glauconitic, and typically indurated. The type locality on Pine Brook at Tinton Falls, Monmouth County, is in this downdip area. At Tinton Falls, 7 to 8 m (23-26 ft) of the Tinton is exposed and has a higher glauconite content than in the updip area. Glauconite at Tinton Falls is light green to pale yellow, and many of the grains have a smooth polished surface that is almost lustrous. Thin sections of the Tinton reveal that many of the grains are oolitic (Owens and Sohl, 1973). X-ray analyses indicate the presence of mixed clay minerals; therefore, the unit is not pure glauconite. The Tinton Formation at Tinton Falls has scattered molds of calcitic fossils and aragonitic shells. Richards (1958) recorded 30 species of mollusks from the Tinton in this area. Of importance are Sphenodiscus lobatus, Cucullaea (Idonearca) littlei, and Scabrotrigonia cerulia. In New Jersey, Scabrotrigonia cerulia is restricted to the Tinton. All three species are common to the upper Maastrichtian Haustator bilira Zone of Sohl (in Owens and others, 1977). Strontium-isotope analysis on calcareous shells from the Tinton yielded ages of 66.2 to 65.6 Ma or a late Maastrichtian age (Sugarman and others, 1995).
Unnamed Formation at Cape May (upper Pliocene)
Unnamed Formation at Cape May - Interbedded gravel, sand, and clay, massive to thickbedded. Informal unit described from a corehole at the Cape May Airport. The lower 18.3 m (60 ft) consists of interbedded gravel; medium- to very coarse grained, poorly sorted sand; and thin to thick beds of medium- to dark-gray, very woody clay. Gravel clasts are typically less than 0.64 mm (0.025 in) in diameter. The upper 12.2 m (40 ft) consists of a thick-bedded, medium-gray, extensively bioturbated clay-silt, which is overlain by an extensively burrowed, fine- to medium-grained glauconitic (about 5 percent) quartz sand. Quartz and siliceous rock fragments compose most sand grains. Feldspar is present in most samples but usually constitutes less than 10 percent of the sand fraction. No calcareous macrofossils were found in the burrowed intervals. Unit is known only to occur on the Cape May peninsula where it lies within a large channel. The unit is about 60 m (197 ft) in maximum thickness. The contact with the underlying Belleplain Member of the Kirkwood Formation is sharp and unconformable; a basal gravel bed as much as 1 m (3 ft) thick is present along the contact. The pollen assemblage in the lower part of the unit is dominated by pine and oak with somewhat lesser amounts of hickory and basswood. Spruce, hemlock, beech, alder, and black gum are minor constituents. Traces of fir, willow, birch, and sweet gum are present, as is exotic Engelhardia. The nonarborial pollen are a Multisia-type composite of the present-day Andean provenance which indicate an exotic cool climate. The lower assemblage suggests a cool-temperate climatic regimen. The pollen assemblage in the upper beds is dominated by oak and hickory with minor amounts of basswood, sweet gum, pine, and Multisia-type composite. Traces of cedar, willow, birch, alder, grass, and Sphagnum spores also are present. This assemblage probably represents a temperate climatic regimen (Les Sirkin, Adelphi University, written commun., 1991). The low percentage of exotic species is characteristic of the late Pliocene, and therefore, the unnamed unit at Cape May may be equivalent to the Beaverdam Formation of the Delmarva Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.
Vincentown Formation (upper Paleocene, Selandian)
Vincentown Formation - Sand, quartz, medium-grained, well- to poorly sorted, dusky-yellow to pale-gray; weathers orange brown or red brown, typically very glauconitic and clayey near base; glauconite decreases up section. Feldspar and mica are minor sand constituents. Unit best exposed in the Pemberton, New Egypt, and Mount Holly quadrangles of the central sheet where the overlying formations have been stripped away. The Vincentown Formation is as much as 30 m (98 ft) thick and averages 3 to 15 m (10-49 ft) in its subcrop belt. Where unweathered the unit is generally a shelly sand; where weathered the unit is largely a massive quartz sand. The unweathered sand of the Vincentown is exposed intermittently along the Manasquan River near Farmingdale, Monmouth County. The calcareous nature of the unweathered Vincentown was observed in several coreholes in the vicinity of Farmingdale. The contact with the underlying Hornerstown Formation is disconformable; locally shell beds (bioherms) up to 1.5 m (5 ft) thick are found along the contact. Shells in the bioherms are typical of a restricted environment and contain the brachiopod Oleneothyris harlani (Morton) in the lower beds and the oyster Pycnodonte dissimilaris in the upper beds. The basal contact and the Oleneothyris bioherms are exposed along Crosswicks and Lahaway Creeks and their tributaries. Where bioherms are absent, the basal contact is difficult to place within a sequence of glauconite beds. In general, glauconite beds of the Vincentown are darker gray than glauconite beds of the Hornerstown, and the Vincentown has more quartz sand. Upper beds of the Vincentown are as much as 12 m (39 ft) thick and are mostly silty, darkgray to green-gray, massive, glauconite sand that contains a small percentage of quartz. Calcarenite or coquina, characterized by an abundance of bryozoans, occurs locally along the western belt. These fossiliferous beds, 6 to 7.5 m (20-25 ft) thick, are best exposed along Shingle Run in the New Egypt quadrangle area and in streams that cross the Vincentown outcrop belt in the Pemberton quadrangle. Calcareous nannofossils, present in some Vincentown outcrops, are from Zones NP 5 (the Oleneothyris beds) and NP 9 (late Paleocene). Vincentown sediments are much more fossiliferous in the subsurface and contain Zones NP 5 through NP 9, inclusive. Therefore, the Vincentown corresponds in age with the Aquia Formation of Virginia and Maryland. Numerous studies of the foraminifera of the Vincentown from calcareous beds in the western outcrop belt indicate that the Vincentown includes the planktic foraminifera Zones P3b through P6a (Olsson and others, 1988). A potassium-argon age of 56.4 +/- 18 Ma was determined for basal beds near New Egypt, Ocean County (Owens and Sohl, 1973).
Vincentown Formation (upper Paleocene, Selandian)
Vincentown Formation - Upper part, sand, glauconite (35-40 percent) and quartz (60-65 percent), fine- to very fine grained, very clayey and silty, massive, dark-gray, bioturbated, very micaceous. Lower part, sand, massive, less micaceous and clayey, dark-gray-green. The lower 4.5 m (15 ft) of the formation is a fine- to medium-grained, clayey glauconite sand. Locally, there is an accumulation of disarticulated calcareous shells along the contact with the underlying Hornerstown Formation. These shells are commonly the brachiopod Oleneothyris harlani or the mollusk Gryphaea dissimilaris. Where the shell bed is absent it is difficult to separate glauconite sand of the basal part of the Vincentown from the underlying Hornerstown Formation, which also is a glauconite sand. Gamma logs through this interval show that there is a small gamma spike along the contact between the glauconite sands. The grain size decreases and the formation is significantly more clayey downdip. At Allaire State Park, Monmouth County (drillhole Allaire-C), for example, the bulk of the Vincentown is a clayey, very micaceous, dark-gray, slightly feldspathic quartz sand. Large fossils, which are abundant in the near-surface beds, are absent. In addition, the basal glauconite beds tend to thicken somewhat downdip. Farther basinward, the bulk of the formation is an unfossiliferous, gray-green to locally tan clayey silt or silty clay. Locally, a thin- to thick-bedded glauconite sand occurs at the base. In the thickest downdip section penetrated at Island Beach, the Vincentown is mostly a pale-gray to dark-gray clay-silt. No megafossils were observed in the Island Beach core. On the basis of geophysical log interpretations in the deepest subsurface, this unit has a maximum thickness of about 38 m (125 ft). The age of the Vincentown is best indicated by calcareous nannofossils, which indicate Zones NP 5 to NP 9 (Bybell, 1992). Common nannofossils from Zone NP 5 are Chiasmolithus bidens, Ellipsolithus distichus, Fasciculithus tympaniformis, Scapholithus fossilis, and Toweius eminens. Common nannofossils in Zone NP 9 are Biantholithus astralis, Chiasmolithus bidens, Discoaster multiradiatus, D. salisburgensis, Fasciculithus involutus, F. schaubii, F. thomasii, and Lophodolithus nascens. The upper part of the Vincentown falls within the upper part of Zone NP 9 and therefore is late Paleocene (Selandian) in age.
Wenonah Formation (Upper Cretaceous, upper Campanian)
Wenonah Formation - Sand, quartz and mica, fine-grained, silty and clayey, massive to thick-bedded, dark-gray to medium-gray; weathers light brown to white, extensively bioturbated, very micaceous, locally contains high concentrations of sand-sized lignitized wood and has large burrows of Ophiomorpha nodosa. Feldspar (5-10 percent) is a minor sand constituent. Unit crops out in a narrow belt from Sandy Hook Bay on the central sheet and pinches out southwest of Oldmans Creek, Salem County, on the southern sheet. Isolated outliers of the Wenonah are detached from the main belt in the central sheet area. Thickness is about 10 m (33 ft) in the northern part of the central sheet, 20 m (66 ft) in the southwestern part of the central sheet, and 7.5 m (25 ft) in the southern sheet. The Wenonah is gradational into the underlying Marshalltown Formation. A transition zone of several meters is marked by a decrease in mica and an increase in glauconite sand into the Marshalltown. Fossil casts are abundant in the Wenonah. Weller (1907) reported Flemingostrea subpatulata Hop Brook in the Marlboro quadrangle indicating a late Campanian age. Wolfe (1976) placed the Wenonah microflora in his CA5A assemblage, considered to be of late Campanian age. Kennedy and Cobban (1994) identified ammonites including Baculites cf. B. scotti, Didymoceras n. sp., Menuites portlocki, Nostoceras (Nostoceras) puzosiforme n. sp., Nostoceras (Nostoceras) aff. N. colubriformus, Parasolenoceras sp., Placenticeras placenta, P. minor n. sp., and Trachyscaphites pulcherrimus. The presence of M. portlocki and T. pulcherrimus indicates late, but not latest, Campanian.
Wildwood Member of the Kirkwood Formation (middle and lower Miocene, Langhian and Burdigalian)
Wildwood Member - Clay, silty, massive to finely bedded, dark-gray to olive-gray, locally interbedded with thin beds of light-colored sand. Contains small shell fragments primarily at base. Upper beds are more sandy than lower beds but also contain many thin to thick beds of clay. The sand is fine to medium grained, light gray, and commonly has dispersed wood fragments. Shell fragments are locally present in this facies. Basal beds are micaceous, locally diatomaceous, and contain wood fragments. Quartz is the major sand constituent with minor amounts of siliceous rock fragments and feldspar. The Wildwood subcrops beneath surficial deposits where the Belleplain Member and Cohansey Formation were stripped away. Along Delaware Bay, the Wildwood subcrops from near the Cohansey River to Fortescue, Cumberland County. Along the Atlantic Coast, the unit subcrops from Bay Shore Park to near Beach Haven Park, Ocean County. The maximum thickness of the unit is about 18 m (59 ft). The contact with the underlying Shiloh Marl Member is sharp and unconformable. Diatoms from the Wildwood Member are from the East Coast Diatom Zone (ECDZ) 2 of Andrews (1988) indicating a latest Burdigalian and Langhian age (late early and early middle Miocene).
Wildwood Member of the Kirkwood Formation (middle and lower Miocene, Langhian and Burdigalian)
Wildwood Member - New member named for a well drilled at Wildwood, Cape May County. Typically consists of a very fossiliferous, micaceous, darkgray clay-silt interbedded with fine- to medium-grained, pale-gray-brown sand in lower half of the member. The upper half of the member is more sandy (mostly fine-grained, micaceous quartz sand), thin-bedded to laminated, commonly interbedded with thin-bedded, gray-brown, micaceous clay; wood fragments are common. The basal contact with the underlying unit is sharp and has considerable relief. A 1-m (3-ft)-thick bed of gravel (1 cm (0.4 in) in maximum diameter) with pieces of quartz and worn shells, commonly occurs along the contact. Thickness of the unit varies widely because of the undulating basal contact. The maximum thickness, 80 m (262 ft), was penetrated in the Wildwood well. At the Island Beach well (290019) at Island Beach State Park, Ocean County, the Wildwood is over 30 m (98 ft) thick. The lower 6 m (20 ft) consists of thick interbeds of fine- to medium-grained, massive to locally thick-bedded, extensively bioturbated, micaceous quartz sand and dark-brown and grayish-brown silty clay. The middle part is mostly massive to finely laminated, dark-gray to gray-brown silt to clay. The upper 6 m (20 ft) consists of fine- to coarse-grained, locally gravelly, thin- to thick-bedded sand interbedded with the clay and silt. The age of the Wildwood was determined from diatoms and strontium-isotope age estimates of mollusk shells. The diatom assemblages in this unit fall within Andrews (1988) ECDZ 2, thus indicating a considerable unconformity between this member and the overlying Belleplain (ECDZ 6). ECDZ 2 is in the Delphineis ovata Zone and contains the characteristic diatoms Coscinodiscus lewisianus, Delphineis lineata, Rhaphidodiscus marylandicus, Rhaphoneis fusiformis, R. margaritata, R. wicomicoensis, Sceptroneis caduceus, S. grandis, and S. hungarica. Strontium-isotope analyses on shells from this interval indicate an age range of 17.4 to 15.5 Ma (Sugarman and others, 1993). The isotopic and paleontologic ages suggest that the Wildwood Member straddles the early-middle Miocene boundary (Langhian-Burdigalian boundary). Pollen from the Wildwood has warm-temperate affinities in the lower part and mixed warm- and cool-temperate affinities in the upper part suggesting an overall cooling of the climate during the time of deposition. Collectively, the Wildwood and Belleplain Members constitute the section that Woolman (1889-1902) assigned to his "great diatom bed".
Woodbury Formation (Upper Cretaceous, lower Campanian)
Woodbury Formation - Clay-silt, dark-gray; weathers brown and orange pink. Iron oxides fill fractures or form layers in the most weathered beds. Unit is massive except at the base where thin quartz sand layers occur. Locally, thin stringers of pale-greenish-brown, smooth-surface glauconite occur near the top. Unit conspicuously micaceous throughout and contains finely dispersed pyrite, carbonaceous matter, and small pieces of carbonized wood as much as 30 cm (12 in) in length. Small siderite concretions are abundant in the Woodbury in the northern part of the outcrop belt. Unit forms a broad belt in the central sheet from Sandy Hook Bay, southwest to area around East Greenwich, Gloucester County, where it pinches out or changes facies. The Woodbury maintains a thickness of about 15 m (49 ft) throughout most of its outcrop belt. Fossil imprints are abundant. An extensive Woodbury macrofauna was described by Weller (1907) from siderite concretions from a tributary to the Cooper River in the Camden quadrangle. This assemblage is unusual in that it is the only existing outcrop of the Woodbury where calcareous and aragonitic shells are still intact. Most fossils are small, fragmented, and concentrated in small pockets, but larger intact calcareous fossils are scattered throughout the Woodbury. Weller (1907) recorded 57 species from this locality. In addition, this is the same locality that contains fossils of the dinosaur Hadrosaurus foulkii. Pollen collected from the Woodbury was assigned to the CA3 Zone by Wolfe (1976). Biostratigraphic data suggest that the Woodbury is of early Campanian age.
New Mexico
Animas Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic Cenozoic | Cretaceous Tertiary)
Animas Formation; in northeast San Juan Basin
sedimentary units, Palogene (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary)
Paleogene sedimentary units; includes Baca, Galisteo, El Rito, Blanco Basin, Love Ranch, Lobo, Sanders Canyon, Skunk Ranch, Timberlake, and Cub Mountain Formations
New York
Monmouth Group, Matawan Group and Magothy Formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Monmouth Group, Matawan Group and Magothy Formation - silty clay, glauconitic sandy clay, sand, gravel.
Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous)
Raritan Formation - clay, silty clay, sand, gravel.
Oklahoma
Brownstown Marl (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late )
McALESTER TEXARKANA- Marl and clay, gray, calcareous, micaceous, sandy and fine-grained sand, with some interbedded chalky limestones; same as upper Austin Chalk of Texas; thickness, about 100 feet.
Ogallala Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene)
CIMARRON- Generally semiconsolidated clay, silt, sand, gravel, and caliche 0 to 400 feet thick. BEAVER- Interbedded sand, siltstone, clay, gravel lenses, and thin limestone. Caliche common near surface but occurrence is not limited to the surface. Caliche accounts for most of the white color in the Ogallala. Other colors generally light tan or buff but locally may be pastel shades of almost any color. The Laverne and Rexroad Formations of Pliocene age and the Meade Group and Odee (of local usage) and other formations of Pleistocene age occur locally and are included with the Ogallala Formation, 0-700 feet thick. WOODWARD- Gravel, sand, silt, clay, caliche, and limestone, locally cemented with calcium carbonate. Generally light-tan to gray to white. Thickness ranges up to 400 feet and probably averages 150 feet. CLINTON- Gray to light-brown, fine- to medium-grained sand with some, clay, silt, gravel, volcanic ash, and caliche beds; locally cemented by calcium carbonate. Thickness ranges from 0 to about 320 feet. The formation thins eastward.
Ozan Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late )
McALESTER TEXARKANA- Marl and clay, light- to dark- to brownish-gray, micaceous, calcareous, sandy, fine-grained sand, with interbedded chalky limestone; glauconitic marl and sand at base; same as lower Taylor Marl of Texas; thickness, about 100 feet.
Pleistocene and Pliocene deposits, undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary Quaternary | Pliocene Pleistocene)
TEXAS- Interfingering beds, tongues, and lenses of sand, silt, clay, gravel, sandstone, caliche, limestone, conglomerate, and volcanic ash. Includes Ogallala and Laverne Formations of Pliocene age and younger deposits of Pleistocene age. Locally the units are tightly cemented by calcium carbonate; other places, they are very poorly consolidated and nearly free of cementing materials. Thickness ranges from 0 to about 800 feet.
Woodbine Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
McALESTER TEXARKANA- Sand, dark-green, yellowish-red, white, gray, fine- to coarse-grained, tuffaceous in upper part; crossbedded, quartzose, and brownish-red noncalcareous clay; some gravel lentils with little to no quartz and some lignites and fossil plants; rests unconformably upon successively older Cretaceous units eastward; thickness, 325 to 455 feet, increasing eastward.
Oregon
Lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary rocks (Pleistocene) (Pleistocene)
Unconsolidated to semiconsolidated lacustrine clay, silt, sand, and gravel; in places includes mudflow and fluvial deposits and discontinuous layers of peat. Includes older alluvium and related deposits of Piper (1942), Willamette Silt (Allison, 1953; Wells and Peck, 1961), alluvial silt, sand, and gravel that form terrace deposits of Wells and others (1983), and Gresham and Estacada Formations of Trimble (1963). Includes deltaic gravel and sand and gravel bars, in pluvial lake basins in southeastern part of map area. In Rome Basin, includes discontinuous layers of poorly consolidated conglomerate characterized by well-rounded, commonly polished pebbles of chert and pebbles and cobbles of quartzite. In places contains mollusks or vertebrate fossils indicating Pleistocene age; mostly deposits of late Pleistocene age, but locally includes some deposits of early Holocene age. Includes Touchet Beds of Flint (1938), deposits of valley terraces of Newcomb (1965), and, in southeast Oregon, basin-filling deposits that incorporate Mazama ash deposits (Qma, Qmp) in the youngest layers
Playa deposits (Holocene) (Holocene)
Clay, silt, sand, and some evaporites
Terrace, pediment, and lag gravels (Holocene and Pleistocene) (Pleistocene to Holocene)
Unconsolidated deposits of gravel, cobbles, and boulders intermixed and locally interlayered with clay, silt, and sand. Mostly on terraces and pediments above present flood plains. Includes older alluvium of Smith and others (1982) in the Klamath Mountains and both high- and low-level terraces along Oregon coast. Includes dissected alluvial fan deposits northeast of Lebanon, and Linn and Leffler Gravels of Allison and Felts (1956)
Pennsylvania
Allegheny Formation (Pennsylvanian)
Allegheny Formation - Cyclic sequences of sandstone, shale, limestone, clay, and coal; includes valuable clay deposits and Vanport Limestone; commercially valuable Freeport, Kittanning, and Brookville-Clarion coals present; base is at bottom of Brookville-Clarion coal.
Patapsco(?) Formation (Cretaceous)
Patapsco(?) Formation - Intensely colored, variegated, ferruginous clay and, in places, beds of sand; occurs in isolated patches.
Pensauken and Bridgeton Formations, undifferentiated (Tertiary)
Pensauken and Bridgeton Formations, undifferentiated - Dark-reddish-brown, cross-stratified, feldspathic quartz sand and some thin beds of fine gravel and rare layers of clay or silt.
Trenton Gravel (Quaternary)
Trenton Gravel - Gray or pale-reddish-brown, very gravelly sand interstratified with crossbedded sand and clay-silt beds; includes areas of Holocene alluvium and swamp deposits.
Rhode Island
Raritan Formation (Cretaceous)
Raritan Formation - Red, white, gray, and black clay and poorly lithified white sand. Black clay contains lignite fragments and pyrite and siderite nodules. Exposed only in a few wave-cut bluffs on Block Island, but inferred to have originally onlapped both the Esmond-Dedham and Hope Valley subterranes. This unit may occur as large glacial erratic blocks enclosed in till, and may not represent in situ bedrock.
South Carolina
Black Creek/Cusseta/Blufftown Formations (Cretaceous)
Black Creek/Cusseta/Blufftown Formations: Moderately to poorly sorted sand and clay deposited in delta-dominated shallow marine environments. Unit is characterized by sands containing locally abundant (F-VC grained) tourmaline and (F-VC grained) muscovite with some monazite and garnet. Clay layers are also common and some lower delta plain deposits form commercial kaolin bodies. Generally very restricted marine in eastern Georgia becoming more open marine to the east and west.
Black Mingo/Clayton Formations (Tertiary)
Black Mingo/Clayton Formations: Poorly to well sorted sand and clay deposited in delta-dominated fluvial- and shallow marine environments. Older parts of unit are characterized by an abundance of feldspar and local sillimanite. Unit is generally delta plain and lagoon deposits in South Carolina becoming open marine calcareous sand and clay in western Georgia. In central Georgia, unit contains an abundance of commercial kaolin deposits formed in lower delta plain environments.
Duplin Formation (Pliocene)
Duplin Formation: Coastal terrace of Carolinas. Pliocene equivalent to Yorktown. Deeply weathered.
Huber/Lisbon/Barnwell Formations, undivided (Eocene)
Huber/Lisbon/Barnwell Formations, undivided: Poorly to well sorted sand, clay and carbonates deposited in delta-dominated fluvial- and open-marine environments. Unit is characterized by commercial kaolin bodies in older strata from westernmost South Carolina to central Georgia. Younger strata are cyclic marine deposits which deeper water facies exposed in western Georgia. Carbonate facies are locally mined in western Georgia for agricultural lime.
Peedee Formation /Black Creek Group, undivided (Cretaceous)
Peedee Formation /Black Creek Group, undivided
Penholoway Formation (Pleistocene)
Penholoway Formation: Similar to Cape May, broad lateral extent underlying terraces in the Carolinas; swamps and ridges on terrace surface were originally barrier islands and back bays. Superimposed on these landforms are swarms of Carolina bays.
Socastee Formation (Pleistocene)
Socastee Formation: Low coastal formation in Carolinas like Penholoway but younger and lower in altitude.
Tidal Marsh (Quaternary)
Tidal Marsh: Peat and muck deposits along tidal margins of esturaries and back bays. Deposits range from a few feet to 60+ feet deep. Locally include silt and fine sand and clay as levees on tidal channels. At depth peaty material may be accumulated from fresh water plants. Peat at the surface dominated by spartina and other salt tolerant species.
Wando Formation (Pleistocene)
Wando Formation: Another Carolina coastal terrace sequence like Penholoway . This is the youngest and lowest. Late Pleistocene
South Dakota
Alluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary)
Clay to boulder-size clasts with locally abundant organic material. Thickness up to 75 ft (23m).
Belle Fourche Shale (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Dark-gray to black bentonitic shale containing minor limestone lenses, bentonite layers, fossiliferous calcarenite, and large, ferruginous, carbonate concretions. Thickness 150-350 ft (46-107 m).
Belle Fourche Shale, Mowry Shale, Newcastle Sandstone,and Skull Creek Shale (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early Cretaceous-Middle(?) Cretaceous-Late)
Note: see individual unit descriptions
Clayely Till, Ground Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Pre-Illinoian])
Heterogeneous, clay to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. Exhibits a distinctive weathered, dissected surface. Contains prominent oxidized joints and fractures with gypsum or calcite. Typically overlain by up to 45 ft (14 m) of loess. Thickness of uppermost Pre-Illinoian till may be up to 120 ft (37 m). Composite thickness of all Pre-Illinoian till may be up to 1,000 ft (305 m).
Colluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary)
Clay to boulder-size clasts forming rubble residuum and talus. Thickness up to 30 ft (9m).
Gravel Deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary )
Clay to boulder-size clasts primarily from igneous and metamorphic rocks of the central Black Hills. Also includes Phanerozoic lithic clasts and rare vertebrate fossils. Thickness up to 60 ft (18 m).
Java Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Early)
Sand to gravel of fluvial orgin. Upper portion is tan to reddish-brown eolian silt with minor clay and fine-grained sand. Thickness up to 180 ft (55 m).
Lacustrine Sediments (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Glaciolacustrine clay and silt with minor sand and gravel. Forms flat, low-lying terrain. Includes deposits from Glacial Lake Dakota and Glacial Lake Agassiz. Thickness up to 60 ft (18m).
Lacustrine Sediments, Ice-walled (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Glaciolacustrine clay and silt with minor sand and gravel. Forms elevated level terrain. Thickness up to 60 ft (18m).
Morrison Formation, Unkpapa Sandstone, Sundance Formation, and Gypsum Spring Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Jurassic-Middle Jurassic-Late)
Morrison Formation (Late Jurassic)- Light-gray to green and variegatedred, brown, yellow, or lavender, silceous claystone, shale, and siltstone containing interbedded sandstone and fresh-water limestone lenses. Thickness up to 150 ft (46 m). Unkpapa Sandstone (Late Jurassic)- White, massive to thin-bedded, fine-grained, argillaceous sandstone. May be variegated to banded red, yellow, brown, or lavender. Thickness up to 267 ft (81 m). Sundance Formation (Late to Middle Jurassic)- Greenish-gray, yellow, tan, red to orange, and white, variegated, interbedded, fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, siltstone, clay, and limestone. Thickness 250-350 ft (76-107 m). Gypsum Springs Formation (Middle Jusassic)- Massive white gypsum and minor maroon siltstone and shale. Thickness up to 40 ft (12 m).
Niobrara Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
White to dark gray argillaceous chalk, marl, and shale. Weathers yellow to orange. Contains thin, laterally continuous bentonite beds, chalky carbonaceous shale, minor sand, and small concretions. Thickness 160-225 ft (49-69 m).
Ogallala Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary Quaternary | Miocene Pliocene(?) Pleistocene-Early)
Includes: Ash Hollow Formation- White, tan, and gray, well-cemented, calcareous sandstone and silty limestone often referred to as "mortar beds". Thickness 90-250 ft 27-76 m) Valentine Formation- Gray, unconsolidated, fine- to coarse grained, fluvial siltstone, channel sandstone, and gravel derived from western sources. Thickness 175-225 ft (53-69 m). Fort Randall Formation- Pink and gray claystone with interbedded sandstone. Also includes green to gray orthoquartzite, bentonitic clay, and conglomerate. Thickness up to 130 ft (40 m).
Outwash, Terrace (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous clay to gravel of glaciofluvial orgin. Thickness up to 60 ft (18m)
Outwash, Undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous sand and gravel, with minor clay and silt. Deposits of glaciofluvial orgin including outwash plains, kame terraces, and other undifferentiated deposits. Thickness up to 30 ft (9m).
Outwash, Undifferentiated (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Illinoian(?) Pre-Illinoian])
Heterogeneous sand and gravel with minor clay of glaciofluvial orgin. Thickness up to 90 ft (27 m).
Pierre Shale (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Blue-gray to dark-gray, fissile to blocky shale with persistent beds of bentonite, black organic shale, or light-brown chalky shale. Contains minor sandstone, conglomerate, and abundant carbonate and ferruginous concretions. Thickness 1,000-2,700 ft (305-823 m).
Pollock Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Glaciolacustrine clay and silty clay with laminae of very fine-grained sand near the middle and base of the formation. Thickness up to 165 ft (50 m).
Terrace Deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary)
Clay to boulder-size clasts deposited as pediments, paleochannels, and terrace fills of former flood plains. Thickness up to 75 ft (23m).
Till, End Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. A geomorphic feature that is characterized by elevated linear ridges with hummocky terrain locally at former ice sheet margins. Composite thicknessof all Upper Wisconsin till may be up to 300 ft (91 m).
Till, Ground Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Illinoian(?)])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts. Exhibits a distinctive weathered, dissected surface. Contains prominent oxidized joints and fractures with gypsum or calcite. Typically overlain by up to 25 ft (8 m) of loess. Thickness up to 120 ft (37 m).
Till, Ground Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. A geomorphic feature that is characterized by smooth, rolling terrain. Composite thickness of all Upper Wisconsin till may be up to 300 ft (91 m).
Till, Minor Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. A geomorphic feature that is characterized by elevated linear ridges including minor, washboard, or recessional moraines. Composite thicknessof all Upper Wisconsin till may be up to 300 ft (91 m).
Till, Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. Exhibits a distinctive weathered, dissected surface.Typically overlain by up to 10 ft (3m) of loess. Thickness up to 150 ft (46 m).
Till, Stagnation Moraine (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Upper Wisconsin])
Heterogeneous, clay with silt to boulder-size clasts of glacial orgin. A geomorphic feature that is characterized by hummocky terrain with abundant sloughs resulting from stagnation of ice sheets. Composite thickness of all Upper Wisconsin till may be up to 300 ft (91 m).
White River Group (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene Oligocene)
Includes: Brule Formation (Oligocene)- White, pink, light-green, and light-brown, massive to thin-bedded, bentonitic claystone, tuffaceous siltstone, and well-bedded, calcareous, tuffaceous quartz sandstone. Thickness up to 150 ft (46 m). Chadron Formation (Eocene)- Upper beds are gray, light-brown to maroon bentonite, claystone, siltstone tuffaceous fine-grained sandstone, and local, silicified carbonate lenses. Basal portion consists of poorly cemented, white, coarse-grained arkose and conglomerate. Thickness up to 160 ft (49 m). Chamberlain Pass Formation (Eocene)- Pale olive to pale red, mottled mudstone containing white, cross-bedded channel sandstone with basal conglomerate. Thickness up to 32 ft (10 m). Slim Buttes Formation (Eocene)- White, grayish- to yellowish-orange,pale-red to pink siltstone, clayey siltstone, bentonitic claystone,medium- to fine-grained sandstone, and conglomerate. Thickness up to 48 ft (15 m).
Tennessee
Alluvial deposits (Quaternary)
Alluvial Deposits - Sand, silt, clay, and gravel. As much as 60 feet thick in flood plains of Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers; in smaller streams generally less than 20 feet thick.
Alluvial deposits (Quaternary)
Alluvial Deposits - Sand, silt, clay and gravel. Mapped only in valley of Cumberland River and in Elk Valley. Thickness generally less than 30 feet.
Alluvial deposits (Quaternary)
Alluvial Deposits - Sand, silt, clay, and gravel. In flood plain of Mississippi River more than 100 feet thick; in smaller streams generally less than 20 feet thick.
Claiborne and Wilcox Formation (Tertiary)
Claiborne and Wilcox Formations -- Irregularly bedded sand, locally interbedded with lenses and beds of gray to white clay, silty clay, lignitic clay, and lignite. Thickness more than 400 feet.
Coffee Sand (Cretaceous)
Coffee Sand - Loose fine-grained sand, light-gray, sparsely glauconitic, locally interbedded with laminated lignitic clay. Thickness 25 to 200 feet; thins northward.
Coffee Sand (Cretaceous)
Coffee Sand - Loose fine-grained sand, light-gray, sparsely glauconitic; locally interbedded with laminated lignitic clay. Maximum preserved thickness about 40 feet.
Coon Creek Formation (Cretaceous)
Coon Creek Formation - Fossiliferous, micaceous sand, silty and glauconitic; locally fossiliferous sandy clay at base. Siderite concretions common in upper part. Thickness about 140 feet.
Demopolis Formation (Cretaceous)
Demopolis Formation - Marl and calcareous clay, light-gray, fossiliferous, locally glauconitic and sandy. Merges northward into sands mapped as Kcc. Maximum thickness 180 feet.
Devonian Formations, includes Pegram Formation, Camden Formation, Harriman Formation, Flat Gap Limestone, and Ross Formation (Devonian)
Devonian Formations - Characterized by marked north-south facies variations. Because of pre-Chattanooga and/or pre-Cretaceous warping and erosion, the distribution and thickness of Devonian formations is very irregular. Includes Pegram Formation - Thick-bedded, gray limestone and gray sandstone. Thickness 0 to 15 feet; Camden Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. Thickness 0 to about 100 feet; Harriman Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. (Harriman and Camden are differentiated paleontologically.) Thickness 0 to 50 feet; Flat Gap Limestone - Thick-bedded, coarse-grained limestone, gray with red and brown grains. Thickness 0 to 55 feet; Ross Formation - Siliceous limestone; gray and variegated shale; and medium-grained glauconitic limestone. Thickness 0 to 75 feet.
Devonian Formations, including Pegram Formation, Camden Formation, Harriman Formation, Flat Gap Limestone, and Ross Formation (Devonian)
Devonian Formations - Characterized by marked north-south facies variations and by very irregular distribution. Individual formations are not uniform in thickness and have been truncated by pre-Chattanooga erosion; includes Pegram Formation - Thick-bedded, gray limestone and gray sandstone. Thickness 0 to 30 feet; Camden Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. Thickness 0 to about 100 feet; Harriman Formation - Light-gray novaculitic chert and tripolitic clay; and minor siliceous limestone. (Harriman and Camden are differentiated paleontologically.) Thickness 0 to 50 feet; Flat Gap Limestone - Thick-bedded, coarse-grained limestone, gray with red and brown grains. Thickness 0 to 13 feet; Ross Formation - Siliceous limestone; gray and variegated shale; and medium-grained glauconitic limestone. Thickness 0 to 75 feet.
Eutaw Formation (Cretaceous)
Eutaw Formation - Grayish-green sand, fine-grained, glauconitic, micaceous; interbedded with gray laminated clays which commonly contain carbonized or silicified wood. (Mapped with Coffee except in Hardin County and southeastern Decatur County.) Thickness 0 to 180 feet; thins northward
Eutaw Formation (Cretaceous)
Eutaw Formation - Grayish-green sand, fine-grained, glauconitic, micaceous; interbedded with gray laminated clays which commonly contain carbonized or silicified wood. Maximum preserved thickness 80 feet; absent to the north.
High-level alluvial deposits (Quaternary-Tertiary)
High-level Alluvial Deposits - Iron-stained gravel, sand, silt, and clay; variable in thickness but generally less then 60 feet thick.
High-Level Alluvial Deposits (Quaternary-Tertiary)
High-Level Alluvial Deposits - Iron-stained gravel, sand, silt, and clay; variable in thickness but generally less than 60 feet thick.
Jackson (?) Formation (Tertiary)
Jackson (?) Formation - Sand, with layers of gray clay, silt, and lignite. Exposed only in bluffs along Mississippi River; thickness at least 60 feet.
McNairy Sand (Cretaceous)
McNairy Sand - Predominantly sand, in places interbedded with silty light-gray clays. Fine-grained sand at base, locally contains heavy minerals. Thickness about 300 feet.
Midway Group including Porters Creek Clay and Clayton Formation (Tertiary)
Midway Group - includes Porters Creek Clay - Pale-brown to brownish-gray, massive, blocky clay; locally contains glauconitic sand. Thickness 130 to 170 feet. Also includes Clayton Formation- Glauconitic sand, argillaceous and locally fossiliferous; at base in Hardeman County is an impure fossiliferous limestone. Thickness 30 to 70 feet.
Owl Creek Formation (Cretaceous)
Owl Creek Formation - Sandy clay, greenish gray, glauconitic, fossiliferous; merges northward into unfossiliferous clays and sands. Thickness 0 to about 40 feet.
Shady Dolomite (Cambrian)
Shady Dolomite - Light-gray, well-bedded dolomite with thin- to medium-bedded gray limestone; yellowish-brown residual clays with "jasperoid" diagnostic. Thickness about 1,000 feet.
St. Louis Limestone and Warsaw Limestone (Mississippian)
St. Louis Limestone - Residuum of nodules and blocks of chert in sandy clay. (Originally grayish-brown, medium-bedded limestone.) Maximum preserved thickness about 50 feet. Warsaw Limestone - Residuum of porous chert blocks in sandy clay. (Originally gray, medium- to coarse-grained, thick- bedded limestone.) Thickness about 60 feet.
Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous)
Tuscaloosa Formation - Poorly sorted, light-gray chert gravel in a matrix of silt and sand; locally interbedded with sand and clay lenses. Thickness 0 to 150 feet.
Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous)
Tuscaloosa Formation - Poorly sorted, light-gray chert gravel in a matrix of silt and sand; locally interbedded with sand and clay lenses. Thickness 0 to 140 feet.
Texas
Aguja Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Aguja Formation
alkali flat deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
alkali flat deposits
alluvium (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
alluvium
Alluvium in Rio Grande, subdivided into areas predominantly of clay (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
Alluvium in Rio Grande, subdivided into areas predominantly of clay
Antlers Sand (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Antlers Sand
Austin Chalk (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Austin Chalk
barrier ridge and barrier flat deposts (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
barrier ridge and barrier flat deposts
Beaumont Formation, areas predominantly clay (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Late)
Beaumont Formation, areas predominantly clay
Beaumont Formation, areas predominantly sand (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Late)
Beaumont Formation, areas predominantly sand
Bigford Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Bigford Formation
Black Peaks Member of Tornillo Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Black Peaks Member of Tornillo Formation
Blackwater Draw Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
Blackwater Draw Formation
Blanco Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene)
Blanco Formation
Blossom Sand (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Blossom Sand
bolson deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
bolson deposits
bolson deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene)
bolson deposits
Bonham Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Bonham Formation
Brownstown Marl (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Brownstown Marl
Buda Limestone and Del Rio Clay, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Buda Limestone and Del Rio Clay, undivided
Cadell Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Cadell Formation
Catahoula Formation and Frio Clay, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
Catahoula Formation and Frio Clay, undivided
clay dune (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
clay dune
Comanchean rocks, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Washita])
Comanchean rocks, undivided
Cook Mountain Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Cook Mountain Formation
Del Rio Clay and Georgetown Limestone, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian] )
Del Rio Clay and Georgetown Limestone, undivided
Deweyville Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene (?))
Deweyville Formation
Deweyville Formation with higher level? (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene (?))
Deweyville Formation with higher level?
Duck Creek Limestone and Kiamichi Formation, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Duck Creek Limestone and Kiamichi Formation, undivided
Eagle Ford Formation and Woodbine Formations, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Eagle Ford Formation and Woodbine Formations, undivided
El Pico Clay (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
El Pico Clay
fill and spoil (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Holocene)
fill and spoil
Fleming Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
Fleming Formation
Fleming Formation and Oakville Sandstone, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
Fleming Formation and Oakville Sandstone, undivided
Fort Worth Limestone and Duck Creek Formation, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Fort Worth Limestone and Duck Creek Formation, undivided
Frio Clay (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Oligocene)
Frio Clay
Glen Rose Limestone (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Glen Rose Limestone
Goliad Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
Goliad Formation
Goodland Limestone and Walnut Clay, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Comanchean])
Goodland Limestone and Walnut Clay, undivided
Hannold Hill Member of Tornillo Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Hannold Hill Member of Tornillo Formation
in Rio Grande delta area, clay veneer over meanderbelt sand (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary)
in Rio Grande delta area, clay veneer over meanderbelt sand
Jackson Group, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene Oligocene)
Jackson Group, undivided
Javelina Member of Tornillo Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic Cenozoic | Cretaceous-Late Tertiary | Paleocene)
Javelina Member of Tornillo Formation
Kemp clay (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Kemp clay
Kemp clay and Corsicana Marl, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Kemp clay and Corsicana Marl, undivided
Kiamichi Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Comanchean])
Kiamichi Formation
Kincaid Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Kincaid Formation
Laredo Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene-Middle)
Laredo Formation
Leona Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
Leona Formation
Lingos Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Middle(?) Pleistocene-Late(?) Holocene)
Lingos Formation
Lissie Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Middle)
Lissie Formation
Manning Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Manning Formation
Manning, Wellborn, and Cadell Formations, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Manning, Wellborn, and Cadell Formations, undivided
Marlbrook Marl (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Marlbrook Marl
Nacatoch Sand (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Nacatoch Sand
Navarro and Taylor Groups, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Navarro and Taylor Groups, undivided
Navarro Group and Marlbrook Marl, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Navarro Group and Marlbrook Marl, undivided
Navarro Group, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Navarro Group, undivided
Neylandville and Marlbrook Marls, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Neylandville and Marlbrook Marls, undivided
Neylandville Marl (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Neylandville Marl
Oakville Sandstone (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Miocene)
Oakville Sandstone
Ogallala Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene Miocene)
Ogallala Formation
Olmos Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Olmos Formation
Onion Creek Marl (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
Onion Creek Marl
Ozan Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Ozan Formation
Pawpaw Formation, Weno Limestone, and Denton Clay, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Pawpaw Formation, Weno Limestone, and Denton Clay, undivided
Pecan Gap Chalk (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Pecan Gap Chalk
Pen Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
Pen Formation
playa deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
playa deposits
Quaternary deposit, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary)
sand, silt, clay, and gravel. locally indurated with calcium carbonate (caliche); includes point bar, natural levee, stream channel, sand dune, terrace, alluvial fan, landslide bolson and playa deposits
Quaternary-Tertiary bolson deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary Quaternary | Pliocene Pleistocene)
Quaternary-Tertiary bolson deposits
Queen City Sand (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Queen City Sand
Reklaw Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Reklaw Formation
Rita Blanca Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene)
Rita Blanca Formation
San Miguel Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
San Miguel Formation
Seymour Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene-Middle [Irvingtonian])
Seymour Formation
Sparta Sand (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Sparta Sand
Strawn Group (Phanerozoic | Paleozoic | Carboniferous Pennsylvanian-Middle [Atoka Des Moines])
Strawn Group
Tahoka Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene [Wisconsinan])
Tahoka Formation
Terrace deposits (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene Holocene)
Terrace deposits
Torcer Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Torcer Formation
Tule Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Quaternary | Pleistocene)
Tule Formation
undivided part Fredericksberg Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
undivided part Fredericksberg Group
undivided part of Washita Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Comanchean])
undivided part of Washita Group
undivided parts of Washita and Fredericksberg Groups (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
undivided parts of Washita and Fredericksberg Groups
upper Cretaceous rocks, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late)
upper Cretaceous rocks, undivided
Upson Clay (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Upson Clay
Walnut Clay (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early)
Walnut Clay
Washita and Fredericksburg Groups, undivided (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Comanchean])
Washita and Fredericksburg Groups, undivided
Washita Group (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Early [Comanchean] Cretaceous-Late )
Washita Group
Weches Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Weches Formation
Wellborn Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene)
Wellborn Formation
Whitsett Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene Oligocene)
Whitsett Formation
Wilcox Group, undivided (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene Eocene)
Wilcox Group, undivided
Willis Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Pliocene)
Willis Formation
Wills Point Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Paleocene)
Wills Point Formation
Woodbine Formation (Phanerozoic | Mesozoic | Cretaceous-Late [Gulfian])
Woodbine Formation
Yazoo Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene-Late)
Yazoo Formation
Yegua Formation (Phanerozoic | Cenozoic | Tertiary | Eocene-Middle)
Yegua Formation
Utah
Quaternary Lake Bonneville deposits (Quaternary)
Virginia
Alluvium (Quaternary)
Alluvium - Poorly sorted organic material, clay, sand, and rounded pebbles and cobbles
Bacons Castle Formation (Tertiary)
Bacons Castle Formation - Gravel grading upward into sand and sandy clayey silt
Bacons Castle Formation (Tertiary)
Bacons Castle Formation - Poorly sorted sand and laminated sand; clay and silt.
Charles City Formation (Quaternary)
Charles City Formation - Interbedded sand, silt, clay and minor gravel; at altitudes to 70-80 ft. (top of unit).
Chesapeake Group (Tertiary)
Chesapeake Group - Fine- to coarse-grained sand, silt, clay; variably shelly and diatomaceous
Chuckatuck Formation (Quaternary)
Chuckatuck Formation - Interbedded gravel, sand, silt, clay, and minor peat; at altitudes to 50-60 ft. (top of unit).
Marsh and Intertidal Mud Deposits (Quaternary)
Marsh and Intertidal Mud Deposits - Organic-rich clay and silt
Miocene Sand and Gravel (Tertiary)
Miocene Sand and Gravel - Sandy gravel, sand, silt, and clay.
Moorings Unit of Oaks and Coch (1973) (Tertiary)
Moorings Unit of Oaks and Coch (1973) - Sand, silt, and clay; at altitudes from 100-130 ft. (top of unit).
Omar Formation - Accomack Member: (Quaternary)
Omar Formation - Accomack Member: sand, gravel, silt, clay, and peat; at altitudes to 50 ft.
Pliocene Sand and Gravel (Tertiary)
Pliocene Sand and Gravel - Sandy gravel, gravelly sand, poorly to well-sorted sands, and thin- to medium-beds of clay and silt, at altitudes from 170-320 ft. (top of unit).
Potomac Formation (Cretaceous)
Potomac Formation - Pebbly, poorly sorted quartzo-feldspathic sand interbedded with sandy clay and silt; minor organic-rich clay and silt
Quaternary and Tertiary Deposits (Tertiary-Quaternary)
Quaternary and Tertiary Deposits - Tabb through Windsor Formations and alluvial/tidal prism deposits.
Shirley Formation (Quaternary)
Shirley Formation - Interbedded gravel, sand, silt, clay, and peat; at altitudes to 35-45 ft. (top of unit).
Swamp Deposits (Quaternary)
Swamp Deposits - Peat, mud, and sand.
Terrace Deposits (Tertiary)
Terrace Deposits - Poorly sorted clay, sand, and rounded pebbles and cobbles, deeply weathered
Windsor Formation (Tertiary-Quaternary)
Windsor Formation - Interbedded gravel, sand, silt, and clay; at altitudes to 85-95 ft. (top of unit).
Washington
Oligocene nonmarine rocks (Oligocene)
Andesite conglomerate, tuff beds, and mudflow material. Includes some interbedded andesite flows in Columbia River Gorge. Lake sediments with Oligocene flora in Republic area in Ferry County. Massive tuffaceous sandstone and siltstone with beds of coal and high-alumina clay in Castle Rock-Toledo coal district in Cowlitz and Lewis Counties; include local interbedded basalt flows and some marine and late Eocene rocks.

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